Chapter 1 1
Zweites Buch (Secret book)
Adolf Hitler's Sequel to Mein Kampf
"Politics is history in the making."
Such were the words of Adolf Hitler in his untitled,unpublished, and
long suppressed second work written only a few years after the
publication of Mein Kampf.
Only two copies of the 200 page manuscript were originally made, and only one of these
has ever been made public. Kept strictly secret under Hitler's orders, the document was
placed in an air raid shelter in 1935 where it remained until it's discovery by an American
officer in 1945.
Written in 1928, the authenticity of the book has been verified by Josef Berg (former
employee of the Nazi publishing house Eher Verlag), and Telford Taylor (former
Brigadier General U.S.A. R., and Chief Counsel at the Nuremburg war-crimes trials) who,
after an analysis made in 1961, comments:
"If Hitler's book of 1928 is read against thebackground of the intervening years , it should
interest not scholars only, but the general reader.
*as quoted by http://www.pharo.cora/lost&found.htm
In August, 1925, on the occasion of the writing of the second volume, I formulated the fundamental ideas of a
National Socialist foreign policy, in the brief time afforded by the circumstances. Within the framework of that
book I dealt especially with the question of the Southern Tyrol, which gave rise to attacks against the
Movement as violent as they were groundless. In 1926, 1 found myself forced to have this part of the second
volume published as a special edition. I did not believe that by so doing I would convert those opponents who,
in the hue and cry over the Southern Tyrol, saw primarily a welcome means for the struggle against the hated
National Socialist Movement. Such people cannot be taught better because the question of truth or error, right
or wrong, plays absolutely no part for them. As soon as an issue seems suitable for exploitation, partly for
political party purposes, partly even for their highly personal interests, the truthfulness or Tightness of the matter
at hand is altogether irrelevant. This is all the more the case if they can thereby inflict damage on the cause of
the general awakening of our Folk. For the men responsible for the destruction of Germany, dating from the
time of the collapse, are her present rulers, and their attitude of that time has not changed in any respect up to
now. Just as at that time they cold heartedly sacrificed Germany for the sake of doctrinaire party views or for
their own selfish advantage, today they likewise vent their hatred against anyone who contradicts their interests,
even though he may have, a thousandfold, all the grounds for a German resurgence on his side. Even more. As
soon as they believe the revival of our Folk, represented by a certain name, can be seen, they usually take a
position against everything that could emanate from such a name. The most useful proposals, indeed the most
patently correct suggestions, are boycotted simply because their spokesman, as a name, seems to be linked to
general ideas which they presume they must combat on the basis of their political party and personal views. To
want to convert such people is hopeless.
Hence in 1926, when my brochure on the Southern Tyrol was printed, I naturally gave not a second's thought to
the idea that I could make an impression on those who, in consequence of their general philosophical and
political attitude, already regarded me as their most vehement opponent. At that time I did entertain the hope
that at least some of them, who were not at the outset malicious opponents of our National Socialist foreign
policy, would first examine our view in this field and judge it afterward. Without a doubt this has also happened
in many cases. Today I can point out with satisfaction that a great number of men, even among those in public
political life, have revised their former attitude with respect to German foreign policy. Even when they believed
they could not side with our standpoint in particulars, they nevertheless recognised the honourable intentions
that guide us here. During the last two years, of course, it has become clearer to me that my writing of that time
was in fact structured on general National Socialist insights as a premise. It also became clearer that many do
not follow us, less out of ill will than because of a certain inability. At that time, within the narrowly drawn
limits, it was not possible to give a real fundamental proof of the soundness of our National Socialist conception
of foreign policy. Today I feel compelled to make up for this. For not only have the attacks of the enemy been
intensified in the last few years, but through them the great camp of the indifferent has also been mobilised to a
certain degree. The agitation that has been systematically conducted against Italy for the past five years
threatens slowly to bear fruit: resulting in the possible death and destruction of the last hopes of a German
Thus, as has often happened in other matters, the National Socialist Movement in its foreign policy position
stands completely alone and isolated within the community of the German Folk and its political life. The attacks
of the general enemies of our Folk and Fatherland are joined inside the country by the proverbial stupidity and
ineptitude of the bourgeois national parties, the indolence of the broad masses, and by cowardice, as a
particularly powerful ally: the cowardice that we can observe today among those who by their very nature are
incapable of putting up any resistance to the Marxist plague, and who, for this reason, consider themselves
downright lucky to bring their voices to the attention of public opinion in a matter which is less dangerous than
the struggle against Marxism, and which nevertheless looks and sounds like something similar to it. For when
they raise their clamour over the Southern Tyrol today, they seem to serve the interests of the national struggle,
just as, conversely, they come as close as they can to standing aside from a real struggle against the worst
internal enemies of the German nation. These patriotic, national, and also in part Folkish champions, however,
find it considerably easier to launch their war cry against Italy in Vienna or Miinchen under benevolent support
and in union with Marxist betrayers of their Folk and Fatherland, rather than fight an earnest war against these
very elements. Just as so much nowadays has become appearance, the whole national pretence by these people
has for a long time been only an outward show which, to be sure, gratifies them, and which a great part of our
Folk does not see through.
Against this powerful coalition, which from the most varied points of view is seeking to make the question of
the Southern Tyrol the pivot of German foreign policy, the National Socialist Movement fights by unswervingly
advocating an alliance with Italy against the ruling Francophile tendency. Thereby the Movement, in
contradistinction to the whole of public opinion in Germany, emphatically points out that the Southern Tyrol
neither can nor should be an obstacle to this policy. This view is the cause of our present isolation in the sphere
of foreign policy and of the attacks against us. Later, to be sure, it will ultimately be the cause of the resurgence
of the German nation.
I write this book in order to substantiate this firmly held conception in detail and to make it understandable. The
less importance I attach to being understood by the enemies of the German Folk, the more I feel the duty of
exerting myself to present and to point out the fundamental National Socialist idea of a real German foreign
policy to the national minded elements of our Folk as such, who are only badly informed or badly led. I know
that, after a sincere examination of the conception presented here, many of them will give up their previous
positions and find their way into the ranks of the National Socialist Freedom Movement of the German Nation.
They will thus strengthen that force which one day will bring about the final settlement with those who cannot
be taught because their thought and action are determined not by the happiness of their Folk, but by the interests
of their party or of their own person.
WAR AND PEACE
Politics is history in the making. History itself is the presentation of the course of a Folk's struggle for existence.
I deliberately use the phrase struggle for existence here because, in truth, that struggle for daily bread, equally in
peace and war, is an eternal battle against thousands upon thousands of resistances, just as life itself is an eternal
struggle against death. For men know as little why they live as does any other creature of the world. Only life is
filled with the longing to preserve itself. The most primitive creature knows only the instinct of the self
preservation of its own, in creatures standing higher in the scale it is transferred to wife and child, and in those
standing still higher to the entire species. While, apparently, man often surrenders his own instinct of self
preservation for the sake of the species, in truth he nevertheless serves it to the highest degree. For not seldom
the preservation of the life of a whole Folk, and with this of the individual, lies only in this renunciation by the
individual. Hence the sudden courage of a mother in the defence of her young and the heroism of a man in the
defence of his Folk. The two powerful life instincts, hunger and love, correspond to the greatness of the instinct
for self preservation. While the appeasement of eternal hunger guarantees self preservation, the satisfaction of
love assures the continuance of the race. In truth these two drives are the rulers of life. And even though the
fleshless aesthete may lodge a thousand protests against such an assertion, the fact of his own existence is
already a refutation of his protest. Nothing that is made of flesh and blood can escape the laws which
determined its coming into being. As soon as the human mind believes itself to be superior to them, it destroys
that real substance which is the bearer of the mind.
What, however, applies to individual man also applies to nations. A nation is only a multitude of more or less
similar individual beings. Its strength lies in the value of the individual beings forming it as such, and in the
character and the extent of the sameness of these values. The same laws which determine the life of the
individual, and to which he is subject, are therefore also valid for the Folk. Self preservation and continuance
are the great urges underlying all action, as long as such a body can still claim to be healthy. Therefore, even the
consequences of these general laws of life will be similar among Folks, as they are among individuals
If, for every creature on this Earth, the instinct of self preservation, in its twin goals of self maintenance and
continuance, exhibits the most elementary power, nevertheless the possibility of satisfaction is limited, so the
logical consequence of this is a struggle in all its forms for the possibility of maintaining this life, that is, the
satisfaction of the instinct for self preservation.
Countless are the species of all the Earth's organisms, unlimited at any moment in individuals is their instinct
for self preservation as well as the longing for continuance, yet the space in which the whole life process takes
place is limited. The struggle for existence and continuance in life waged by billions upon billions of organisms
takes place on the surface of an exactly measured sphere. The compulsion to engage in the struggle for
existence lies in the limitation of the living space; but in the life struggle for this living space lies also the basis
In the times before man, world history was primarily a presentation of geological events: the struggle of natural
forces with one another, the creation of an inhabitable surface on this planet, the separation of water from land,
the formation of mountains, of plains, and of the seas. This is the world history of this time. Later, with the
emergence of organic life, man's interest concentrated on the process of becoming and the passing away of its
thousandfold forms. And only very late did man finally become visible to himself, and thus by the concept of
world history he began to understand first and foremost only the history of his own becoming, that is, the
presentation of his own evolution. This evolution is characterised by an eternal struggle of men against beasts
and against men themselves. From the invisible confusion of the organisms there finally emerged formations:
Clans, Tribes, Folks, States. The description of their origins and their passing away is but the representation of
an eternal struggle for existence.
If, however, politics is history in the making, and history itself the presentation of the struggle of men and
nations for self preservation and continuance, then politics is, in truth, the execution of a nation's struggle for
existence. But politics is not only the struggle of a nation for its existence as such; for us men it is rather the art
of carrying out this struggle
Since history as the representation of the hitherto existing struggles for existence of nations is at the same time
the petrified representation of politics prevailing at a given moment, it is the most suitable teacher for our own
If the highest task of politics is the preservation and the continuance of the life of a Folk, then this life is the
eternal stake with which it fights, for which and over which this struggle is decided. Hence its task is the
preservation of a substance made of flesh and blood. Its success is the making possible of this preservation. Its
failure is the destruction, that is, the loss of this substance. Consequently, politics is always the leader of the
struggle for existence, the guide of the same, its organiser, and its efficacy will, regardless of how man formally
designates it, carry with it the decision as to the life or death of a Folk
It is necessary to keep this clearly in view because, with this, the two concepts — a policy of peace or war —
immediately sink into nothingness. Since the stake over which politics wrestles is always life itself, the result of
failure or success will likewise be the same, regardless of the means with which politics attempts to carry out
the struggle for the preservation of the life of a Folk. A peace policy that fails leads just as directly to the
destruction of a Folk, that is, to the extinction of its substance of flesh and blood, as a war policy that
miscarries. In the one case just as in the other, the plundering of the prerequisites of life is the cause of the dying
out of a Folk. For nations have not become extinct on battlefields; lost battles rather have deprived them of the
means for the preservation of life, or, better expressed, have led to such a deprivation, or were not able to
Indeed, the losses which arise directly from a war are in no way proportionate to the losses deriving from a
Folk's bad and unhealthy life as such. Silent hunger and evil vices in ten years kill more people than war could
finish off in a thousand years. The cruellest war, however, is precisely the one which appears to be most
peaceful to presentday humanity, namely the peaceful economic war. In its ultimate consequences, this very war
leads to sacrifices in contrast to which even those of the World War shrink to nothing. For this war affects not
only the living but grips above all those who are about to be born. Whereas war at most kills off a fragment of
the present, economic warfare murders the future. A single year of birth control in Europe kills more people
than all those who fell in battle, from the time of the French Revolution up to our day, in all the wars of Europe,
including the World War. But this is the consequence of a peaceful economic policy which has overpopulated
Europe without preserving the possibility of a further healthy development for a number of nations.
In general, the following should also be stated:
As soon as a Folk forgets that the task of politics is to preserve its life with all means and according to all
possibilities, and instead aims to subject politics to a definite mode of action, it destroys the inner meaning of
the art of leading a Folk in its fateful struggle for freedom and bread.
A policy which is fundamentally bellicose can keep a Folk removed from numerous vices and pathological
symptoms, but it cannot prevent a change of the inner values in the course of many centuries. If it becomes a
permanent phenomenon, war contains an inner danger in itself, which stands out all the more clearly the more
dissimilar are the fundamental racial values which constitute a nation. This already applied to all the known
States of antiquity, and applies especially today to all European States. The nature of war entails that, through a
thousandfold individual processes, it leads to a racial selection within a Folk, which signifies a preferential
destruction of its best elements. The call to courage and bravery finds its response in countless individual
reactions, in that the best and most valuable racial elements again and again voluntarily come forward for
special tasks, or they are systematically cultivated through the organisational method of special formations.
Military leadership of all times has always been dominated by the idea of forming special legions, chosen elite
troops for guard regiments and assault battalions. Persian palace guards, Alexandrian elite troops, Roman
legions of Praetorians, lost troops of mercenaries, the guard regiments of Napoleon and Frederick The Great,
the assault battalions, submarine crews and flying corps of the World War owed their origin to the same idea
and necessity of seeking out of a great multitude of men, those with the highest aptitude for the performance of
correspondingly high tasks, and bringing them together into special formations. For originally every guard was
not a drill corps but a combat unit. The glory attached to membership in such a community led to the creation of
a special esprit de corps which subsequently, however, could freeze and ultimately end up in sheer formalities.
Hence not seldom such formations will have to bear the greatest blood sacrifices; that is to say, the fittest are
sought out from a great multitude of men and led to war in concentrated masses. Thus the percentage of the best
dead of a nation is disproportionately increased, while conversely the percentage of the worst elements is able to
preserve itself to the highest degree. Over against the extremely idealistic men who are ready to sacrifice their
own lives for the Folkish Community, stands the number of those most wretched egoists who view the
preservation of their own mere personal life likewise as the highest task of this life. The hero dies, the criminal
is preserved. This appears self evident to an heroic age, and especially to an idealistic youth. And this is good,
because it is the proof of the still present value of a Folk. The true statesman must view such a fact with
concern, and take it into account. For what can easily be tolerated in one war, in a hundred wars leads to the
slow bleeding away of the best, most valuable elements of a nation. Thereby victories will indeed have been
won, but in the end there will no longer be a Folk worthy of this victory. And the pitifulness of the posterity,
which to many seems incomprehensible, not seldom is the result of the successes of former times.
Therefore, wise political leaders of a Folk will never see in war the aim of the life of a Folk, but only a means
for the preservation of this life. It must educate the human material entrusted to it to the highest manhood, but
rule it with the highest conscientiousness. If necessary, when a Folk's life is at stake, they should not shrink
from daring to shed blood to the utmost, but they must always bear in mind that peace must one day again
replace this blood. Wars which are fought for aims that, because of their whole nature, do not guarantee a
compensation for the blood that has been shed, are sacrileges committed against a nation, a sin against a Folk's
Eternal wars, however, can become a terrible danger among a Folk which possesses such unequal elements in
its racial composition that only part of them may be viewed as Statepreserving, as such, and therefore,
especially, creative culturally. The culture of European Folks rests on the foundations which its infusion of
Nordic blood has created in the course of centuries. Once the last remains of this Nordic blood are eliminated,
the face of European culture will be changed, the value of the States decreasing, however, in accordance with
the sinking value of the Folks.
A policy which is fundamentally peaceful, on the other hand, would at first make possible the preservation of its
best blood carriers, but on the whole it would educate the Folk to a weakness which, one day, must lead to
failure, once the basis of existence of such a Folk appears to be threatened. Then, instead of fighting for daily
bread, the nation rather will cut down on this bread and, what is even more probable, limit the number of people
either through peaceful emigration or through birth control, in order in this way to escape an enormous distress.
Thus the fundamentally peaceful policy becomes a scourge for a Folk. For what, on the one hand, is effected by
permanent war, is effected on the other by emigration. Through it a Folk is slowly robbed of its best blood in
hundreds of thousands of individual life catastrophes. It is sad to know that our whole national political wisdom,
insofar as it does not see any advantage at all in emigration, at most deplores the weakening of the number of its
own people, or at best speaks of a cultural fertiliser which is thereby given to other States. What is not perceived
is the worst. Since the emigration does not proceed according to territory, nor according to age categories, but
instead remains subject to the free rule of fate, it always drains away from a Folk the most courageous and the
boldest people, the most determined and most prepared for resistance. The peasant youth who emigrated to
America 150 years ago was as much the most determined and most adventurous man in his village as the
worker who today goes to Argentina. The coward and weakling would rather die at home than pluck up the
courage to earn his bread in an unknown, foreign land. Regardless whether it is distress, misery, political
pressure or religious compulsion that weighs on people, it will always be those who are the healthiest and the
most capable of resistance who will be able to put up the most resistance. The weakling will always be the first
to subject himself. His preservation is generally as little a gain for the victor as the stay at homes are for the
mother country. Not seldom, therefore, the law of action is passed on from the mother country to the colonies,
because there a concentration of the highest human values has taken place in a wholly natural way. However,
the positive gain for the new country is thus a loss for the mother country. As soon as a Folk once loses its best,
strongest and most natural forces through emigration in the course of centuries, it will hardly be able any more
to muster the inner strength to put up the necessary resistance to fate in critical times. It will then sooner grasp
at birth control. Even here the loss in numbers is not decisive, but the terrible fact that, through birth control, the
highest potential values of a Folk are destroyed at the very outset. For the greatness and future of a Folk is
determined through the sum of its capacities for the highest achievements in all fields. But these are personality
values which do not appear linked to primogeniture. If we were to strike off from our German cultural life, from
our science, indeed from our whole existence as such, all that which was created by men who were not first
born sons, then Germany would hardly be a Balkan State. The German Folk would no longer have any claim to
being valued as a cultural Folk. Moreover, it must be considered that, even in the case of those men who as first
born nevertheless accomplished great things for their Folk, it must first be examined whether one of their
ancestors at least had not been a first born. For when in his whole ancestral series the chain of the first born
appears as broken just once [one man], then he also belongs to those who would not have existed had our
forefathers always paid homage to this principle. In the life of nations, however, there are no vices of the past
that are [would be] right in the present.
The fundamentally peaceful policy, with the subsequent bleeding to death of a nation through emigration and
birth control, is likewise all the more catastrophic the more it involves a Folk which is made up of racially
unequal elements. For in this case as well the best racial elements are taken away from the Folk through
emigration, whereas through birth control in the homeland it is likewise those who in consequence of their
racial value have worked themselves up to the higher levels of life and society who are at first affected.
Gradually then their replenishment would follow out of the bled, inferior broad masses, and finally, after
centuries, lead to a lowering of the whole value of the Folk altogether. Such a nation will have long ceased to
possess real life vitality.
Thus a policy which is fundamentally peaceful will be precisely as harmful and devastating in its effects as a
policy which knows war as its only weapon.
Politics must fight about the life of a Folk, and for this life; moreover, it must always choose the weapons of its
struggles so that life in the highest sense of the word is served. For one does not make politics in order to be
able to die, rather one may only at times call upon men to die so that a nation can live. The aim is the
preservation of life and not heroic death, or even cowardly resignation.
w w w . adolfhitler . ws
THE NECESSITY OF STRIFE
A Folk's struggle for existence is first and foremost determined by the following fact:
Regardless of how high the cultural importance of a Folk may be, the struggle for daily bread stands at the
forefront of all vital necessities. To be sure, brilliant leaders can hold great goals before a Folk's eyes, so that it
can be further diverted from material things in order to serve higher spiritual ideals. In general, the merely
material interest will rise in exact proportion as ideal spiritual outlooks are in the process of disappearing. The
more primitive the spiritual life of man, the more animallike he becomes, until finally he regards food intake as
the one and only aim of life. Hence a Folk can quite well endure a certain limitation of material goals, as long as
it is given compensation in the form of active ideals. But if these ideals are not to result in the ruin of a Folk,
they should never exist unilaterally at the expense of material nourishment, so that the health of the nation
seems to be threatened by them. For a starved Folk will indeed either collapse in consequence of its physical
undernourishment, or perforce bring about a change in its situation. Sooner or later, however, physical collapse
brings spiritual collapse in its train. Then all ideals also come to an end. Thus ideals are good and healthy as
long as they keep on strengthening a Folk's inner and general forces, so that in the last analysis they can again
be of benefit in waging the struggle for existence. Ideals which do not serve this purpose are evil, though they
may appear a thousand times outwardly beautiful, because they remove a Folk more and more from the reality
But the bread which a Folk requires is conditioned by the living space at its disposal. A healthy Folk, at least,
will always seek to find the satisfaction of its needs on its own soil. Any other condition is pathological and
dangerous, even if it makes possible the sustenance of a Folk for centuries. World trade, world economy, tourist
traffic, and so on, and so forth, are all transient means for securing a nation's sustenance. They are dependent
upon factors which are partly beyond calculation, and which, on the other hand, lie beyond a nation's power. At
all times the surest foundation for the existence of a Folk has been its own soil.
But now we must consider the following:
The number of a Folk is a variable factor. It will always rise in a healthy Folk. Indeed, such an increase alone
makes it possible to guarantee a Folk's future in accordance with human calculations. As a result, however, the
demand for commodities also grows constantly. In most cases the so called domestic increase in production can
satisfy only the rising demands of mankind, but in no way the increasing population. This applies especially to
European nations. In the last few centuries, especially in most recent times, the European Folks have increased
their needs to such an extent that the rise in European soil productivity, which is possible from year to year
under favourable conditions, can hardly keep pace with the growth of general life needs as such. The increase of
population can be balanced only through an increase, that is, an enlargement, of living space. Now the number
of a Folk is variable, the soil as such, however, remains constant. This means that the increase of a Folk is a
process, so self evident because it is so natural, that it is not regarded as something extraordinary. On the other
hand, an increase in territory is conditioned by the general distribution of possessions in the world; an act of
special revolution, an extraordinary process, so that the ease with which a population increases stands in sharp
contrast to the extraordinary difficulty of territorial changes.
Yet the regulation of the relation between population and territory is of tremendous importance for a nation's
existence. Indeed, we can justly say that the whole life struggle of a Folk, in truth, consists in safeguarding the
territory it requires as a general prerequisite for the sustenance of the increasing population. Since the
population grows incessantly, and the soil as such remains stationary, tensions perforce must gradually arise
which at first find expression in distress, and which for a certain time can be balanced through greater industry,
more ingenious production methods, or special austerity. But there comes a day when these tensions can no
longer be eliminated by such means. Then the task of the leaders of a nation's struggle for existence consists in
eliminating the unbearable conditions in a fundamental way, that is, in restoring a tolerable relation between
population and territory.
In the life of nations there are several ways for correcting the disproportion between population and territory.
The most natural way is to adapt the soil, from time to time, to the increased population. This requires a
determination to fight and the risk of bloodshed. But this very bloodshed is also the only one that can be
justified to a Folk. Since through it the necessary space is won for the further increase of a Folk, it automatically
finds manifold compensation for the humanity staked on the battlefield. Thus the bread of freedom grows from
the hardships of war. The sword was the path breaker for the plough. And if we want to talk about human rights
at all, then in this single case war has served the highest right of all: it gave a Folk the soil which it wanted to
cultivate industriously and honestly for itself, so that its children might some day be provided with their daily
bread. For this soil is not allotted to anyone, nor is it presented to anyone as a gift. It is awarded by Providence
to people who in their hearts have the courage to take possession of it, the strength to preserve it, and the
industry to put it to the plough.
Hence every healthy, vigorous Folk sees nothing sinful in territorial acquisition, but something quite in keeping
with nature. The modern pacifist who denies this holy right must first be reproached for the fact that he himself
at least is being nourished on the injustices of former times. Furthermore, there is no spot on this Earth that has
been determined as the abode of a Folk for all time, since the rule of nature has for tens of thousands of years
forced mankind eternally to migrate. Finally the present distribution of possessions on the Earth has not been
designed by a higher power, but by man himself. But I can never regard a solution effected by man as an eternal
value which Providence now takes under its protection and sanctifies into a law of the future. Thus, just as the
Earth's surface seems to be subject to eternal geological transformations, making organic life perish in an
unbroken change of forms in order to discover the new, this limitation of human dwelling places is also exposed
to an endless change. However, many nations, at certain times, may have an interest in presenting the existing
distribution of the world's territories as binding forever, for the reason that it corresponds to their interests, just
as other nations can see only something generally manmade in such a situation which at the moment is
unfavourable to them, and which therefore must be changed with all means of human power. Anyone who
would banish this struggle from the Earth forever would perhaps abolish the struggle between men, but he
would also eliminate the highest driving power for their development; exactly as if in civil life he would want to
eternalise the wealth of certain men, the greatness of certain business enterprises, and for this purpose eliminate
the play of free forces, competition. The results would be catastrophic for a nation.
The present distribution of world space in a one sided way turns out to be so much in favour of individual
nations that the latter perforce have an understandable interest in not allowing any further change in the present
distribution of territories. But the overabundance of territory enjoyed by these nations contrasts with the poverty
of the others, which, despite the utmost industry, are not in a position to produce their daily bread so as to keep
alive. What higher rights would one want to oppose against them if they also raise the claim to a land area
which safeguards their sustenance?
No. The primary right of this world is the right to life, so far as one possesses the strength for this. Hence, on
the basis of this right, a vigorous nation will always find ways of adapting its territory to its population size.
Once a nation, as the result either of weakness or bad leadership, can no longer eliminate the disproportion
between its increased population and the fixed amount of territory by increasing the productivity of its soil, it
will necessarily look for other ways. It will then adapt the population size to the soil.
Nature as such herself performs the first adaptation of the population size to the insufficiently nourishing soil.
Here distress and misery are her devices. A Folk can be so decimated through them that any further population
increase practically comes to a halt. The consequences of this natural adaptation of the Folk to the soil are not
always the same. First of all a very violent struggle for existence sets in, which only individuals who are the
strongest and have the greatest capacity for resistance can survive. A high infant mortality rate on the one hand
and a high proportion of aged people on the other are the chief signs of a time which shows little regard for
individual life. Since, under such conditions, all weaklings are swept away through acute distress and illness,
and only the healthiest remain alive, a kind of natural selection takes place. Thus the number of a Folk can
easily be subject to a limitation, but the inner value can remain, indeed it can experience an inner heightening.
But such a process cannot last for too long, otherwise the distress can also turn into its opposite. In nations
composed of racial elements that are not wholly of equal value, permanent malnutrition can ultimately lead to a
dull surrender to the distress, which gradually reduces energy, and instead of a struggle which fosters a natural
selection, a gradual degeneration sets in. This is surely the case once man, in order to control the chronic
distress, no longer attaches any value to an increase of his number, and resorts on his own to birth control. For
then he himself immediately embarks upon a road opposite to that taken by nature. Whereas nature, out of the
multitude of beings who are born, spares the few who are most fitted in terms of health and resistance to wage
life's struggle, man limits the number of births, and then tries to keep alive those who have been born with no
regard to their real value or to their inner worth. Here his humanity is only the handmaiden of his weakness, and
at the same time it is actually the cruellest destroyer of his existence. If man wants to limit the number of births
on his own, without producing the terrible consequences which arise from birth control, he must give the
number of births free rein but cut down on the number of those remaining alive. At one time the Spartans were
capable of such a wise measure, but not our present, mendaciously sentimental, bourgeois patriotic nonsense.
The rule of six thousand Spartans over three hundred and fifty thousand Helots was only thinkable in
consequence of the high racial value of the Spartans. But this was the result of a systematic race preservation;
thus Sparta must be regarded as the first Folkish State. The exposure of sick, weak, deformed children, in short
their destruction, was more decent and in truth a thousand times more humane than the wretched insanity of our
day which preserves the most pathological subject, and indeed at any price, and yet takes the life of a hundred
thousand healthy children in consequence of birth control or through abortions, in order subsequently to breed a
race of degenerates burdened with illnesses.
Hence it can be said in general that the limitation of the population through distress and human agencies may
very well lead to an approximate adaptation to the inadequate living space, but the value of the existing human
material is constantly lowered and indeed ultimately decays.
The second attempt to adapt the population size to the soil lies in emigration, which so long as it does not take
place tribally, likewise leads to a devaluation of the remaining human material.
Human birth control wipes out the bearer of the highest values, emigration destroys the value of the average.
There are still two other ways by which a nation can try to balance the disproportion between population and
territory. The first is called increasing the domestic productivity of the soil, which as such has nothing to do
with so called internal colonisation; the second the increase of commodity production and the conversion of the
domestic economy into an export economy.
The idea of increasing the yield of the soil within borders that have been fixed once and forever is an old one.
The history of human cultivation of the soil is one of permanent progress, permanent improvement and
therefore of increasing yields. While the first part of this progress lay in the field of methods of soil cultivation
as well as in the construction of settlements, the second part lies in increasing the value of the soil artificially
through the introduction of nutritious matter that is lacking or insufficient. This line leads from the hoe of
former times up to the modern steam plough, from stable manure up to present artificial fertilisers. Without
doubt the productivity of the soil has thereby been infinitely increased. But it is just as certain that there is a
limit somewhere. Especially if we consider that the living standard of cultured man is a general one, which is
not determined by the amount of a nation's commodities available to the individual; rather it is just as much
subject to the judgement of surrounding countries and, conversely, is established through the conditions within
them. The present day European dreams of a living standard which he derives as much from the potentialities of
Europe as from the actual conditions prevailing in America. International relations between nations have
become so easy and close through modern technology and the communication it makes possible, that the
European, often without being conscious of it, applies American conditions as a standard for his own life. But
he thereby forgets that the relation of the population to the soil surface of the American continent is infinitely
more favourable than the analogous conditions of European nations to their living spaces. Regardless of how
Italy, or let's say Germany, carry out the internal colonisation of their soil, regardless of how they increase the
productivity of their soil further through scientific and methodical activity, there always remains the
disproportion of the number of their population to the soil as measured against the relation of the population of
the American Union to the soil of the Union. And if a further increase of the population were possible for Italy
or Germany through the utmost industry, then this would be possible in the American Union up to a multiple of
theirs. And when ultimately any further increase in these two European countries is no longer possible, the
American Union can continue to grow for centuries until it will have reached the relation that we already have
The effects that it is hoped to achieve through internal colonisation, in particular, rest on a fallacy. The opinion
that we can bring about a considerable increase in the productivity of the soil is false. Regardless of how, for
example, the land is distributed in Germany, whether in large or in small peasant holdings, or in plots for small
settlers, this does not alter the fact that there are, on the average, 136 people to one square kilometre. This is an
unhealthy relation. It is impossible to feed our Folk on this basis and under this premise. Indeed it would only
create confusion to set the slogan of internal colonisation before the masses, who will then latch their hopes
onto it and thereby think to have found a means of doing away with their present distress. This would not at all
be the case. For the distress is not the result of a wrong kind of land distribution, say, but the consequence of the
inadequate amount of space, on the whole, at the disposal of our nation today.
By increasing the productivity of the soil, however, some alleviation of a Folk's lot could be achieved. But in
the long run this would never exempt it from the duty to adapt the nation's living space, become insufficient, to
the increased population. Through internal colonisation, in the most favourable circumstances, only
amelioration in the sense of social reform and justice could take place. It is entirely without importance as
regards the total sustenance of a Folk. It will often be harmful for a nation's foreign policy position because it
awakens hopes which can remove a Folk from realistic thinking. The ordinary, respectable citizen will then
really believe that he can find his daily bread at home through industry and hard work, rather than realise that
the strength of a Folk must be concentrated in order to win new living space.
Economics, which especially today is regarded by many as the saviour from distress and care, hunger and
misery, under certain preconditions can give a Folk possibilities for existence which lie outside its relation to its
own soil. But this is linked to a number of prerequisites of which I must make brief mention here.
The sense of such an economic system lies in the fact that a nation produces more of certain vital commodities
than it requires for its own use. It sells this surplus outside its own national community, and with the proceeds
therefrom it procures those foodstuffs and also the raw materials which it lacks. Thus this kind of economics
involves not only a question of production, but in at least as great a degree a question of selling. There is much
talk, especially at the present time, about increasing production, but it is completely forgotten that such an
increase is of value only as long as a buyer is at hand. Within the circle of a nation's economic life, every
increase in production will be profitable to the degree that it increases the number of goods which are thus made
available to the individual. Theoretically, every increase in the industrial production of a nation must lead to a
reduction in the price of commodities and in turn to an increased consumption of them, and consequently put
the individual Folk Comrade in a position to own more vital commodities. In practice, however, this in no way
changes the fact of the inadequate sustenance of a nation as a result of insufficient soil. For, to be sure, we can
increase certain industrial outputs, indeed many times over, but not the production of foodstuffs. Once a nation
suffers from this need, an adjustment can take place only if a part of its industrial overproduction can be
exported in order to compensate from the outside for the foodstuffs that are not available in the homeland. But
an increase in production having this aim achieves the desired success only when it finds a buyer, and indeed a
buyer outside the country. Thus we stand before the question of the sales potential, that is, the market, a
question of towering importance.
The present world commodity market is not unlimited. The number of industrially active nations has steadily
increased. Almost all European nations suffer from an inadequate and unsatisfactory relation between soil and
population. Hence they are dependent on world export. In recent years the American Union has turned to
export, as has also Japan in the east. Thus a struggle automatically begins for the limited markets, which
becomes tougher the more numerous the industrial nations become and, conversely, the more the markets
shrink. For while on the one hand the number of nations struggling for world markets increases, the commodity
market itself slowly diminishes, partly in consequence of a process of self industrialisation on their own power,
partly through a system of branch enterprises which are more and more coming into being in such countries out
of sheer capitalist interest. For we should bear the following in mind: the German Folk, for example, has a
lively interest in building ships for China in German dockyards, because thereby a certain number of men of our
nationality get a chance to feed themselves which they would not have on our own soil, which is no longer
sufficient. But the German Folk has no interest, say, in a German financial group or even a German factory
opening a so called branch dockyard in Shanghai which builds ships for China with Chinese workers and
foreign steel, even if the corporation earns a definite profit in the form of interest or dividend. On the contrary,
the result of this will be only that a German financial group earns so and so many million, but, as a result of the
orders lost, a multiple of this amount is withdrawn from the German national economy.
The more pure capitalist interests begin to determine the present economy, the more the general viewpoints of
the financial world and the stock exchange achieve a decisive influence here, the more will this system of
branch establishments reach out and thus artificially carry out the industrialisation of former commodity
markets and especially curtail the export possibilities of the European mother countries. Today many can still
afford to smile over this future development, but as it makes further strides, within thirty years people in Europe
will groan under its consequences
The more market difficulties increase, the more bitterly will the struggle for the remaining ones be waged.
Although the primary weapons of this struggle lie in pricing and in the quality of the goods with which nations
competitively try to undersell each other, in the end the ultimate weapons even here lie in the sword. The so
called peaceful economic conquest of the world could take place only if the Earth consisted of purely agrarian
nations and but one industrially active and commercial nation. Since all great nations today are industrial
nations, the so called peaceful economic conquest of the world is nothing but the struggle with means which
will remain peaceful for as long as the stronger nations believe they can triumph with them, that is, in reality for
as long as they are able to kill the others with peaceful economics. For this is the real result of the victory of a
nation with peaceful economic means over another nation. Thereby one nation receives possibilities of survival
and the other nation is deprived of them. Even here what is at stake is always the substance of flesh and blood,
which we designate as a Folk
If a really vigorous Folk believes that it cannot conquer another with peaceful economic means, or if an
economically weak Folk does not wish to let itself be killed by an economically stronger one, as the possibilities
for its sustenance are slowly cut off, then in both cases [it will seize the sword] the vapours of economic
phraseology will be suddenly torn asunder, and war, that is the continuation of politics with other means, steps
into its place.
The danger to a Folk of economic activity in an exclusive sense lies in the fact that it succumbs only too easily
to the belief that it can ultimately shape its destiny through economics. Thus the latter from a purely secondary
place moves forward to first place, and finally is even regarded as Stateforming, and robs the Folk of those very
virtues and characteristics which in the last analysis make it possible for Nations and States to preserve life on
A special danger of the so called peaceful economic policy, however, lies above all in the fact that it makes
possible an increase in the population, which finally no longer stands in any relation to the productive capacity
of its own soil to support life. This overfilling of an inadequate living space with people not seldom also leads
to the concentration of people in work centres which look less like cultural centres, and rather more like
abscesses in the national body in which all evil, vices and diseases seem to unite. Above all, they are breeding
grounds of blood mixing and bastardisation, and of race lowering, thus resulting in those purulent infection
centres in which the international Jewish racial maggots thrive and finally effect further destruction.
Precisely thereby is the way open to decay in which the inner strength of such a Folk swiftly disappears, all
racial, moral and folk values are earmarked for destruction, ideals are undermined, and in the end the
prerequisite which a Folk urgently needs in order to take upon itself the ultimate consequences of the struggle
for world markets is eliminated. Weakened by a vicious pacifism, Folks will no longer be ready to fight for
markets for their goods with the shedding of their blood. Hence, as soon as a stronger nation sets the real
strength of political power in the place of peaceful economic means, such nations will collapse Then their own
delinquencies will take revenge. They are overpopulated, and now in consequence of the loss of all the real
basic requirements they no longer have any possibility of being able to feed their overgrown mass of people
adequately. They have no strength to break the chains of the enemy, and no inner value with which to bear their
fate with dignity. Once they believed they could live, thanks to their peaceful economic activity, and renounce
the use of violence. Fate will teach them that in the last analysis a Folk is preserved only when population and
living space stand in a definite natural and healthy relation to each other. Further, this relation must be
examined from time to time, and indeed must be reestablished in favour of the population to the very same
degree that it shifts unfavourably with respect to the soil.
For this, however, a nation needs weapons. The acquisition of soil is always linked with the employment of
If the task of politics is the execution of a Folk's struggle for existence, and if the struggle for existence of a
Folk in the last analysis consists of safeguarding the necessary amount of space for nourishing a specific
population, and if this whole process is a question of the employment of a Folk's strength, the following
concluding definitions result therefrom:
Politics is the art of carrying out a Folk's struggle for its Earthly existence.
Foreign policy is the art of safeguarding the momentary, necessary living space, in quantity and quality, for a
Domestic policy is the art of preserving the necessary employment of force for this in the form of its race value
RACE AND WILL IN THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER
Here at this point I want to discuss that bourgeois concept which views power chiefly as a nation's supply of
weapons, and, to a lesser degree, perhaps also the army as an organisation. If the concept of these people were
pertinent, that is, if the power of a nation really lay in its possession of arms and in its army as such, then a
nation which has lost its army and weapons through any reasons whatsoever must be done for permanently.
These bourgeois politicians themselves hardly believe that. By their very doubt of this they admit that weapons
and army organisation are things which can be replaced; and that consequently they are not of a primary
character, that there is something which stands above them, and which at least is also the source of their power.
And so it is. Weapons and army forms are destructible and are replaceable. As great as their importance perhaps
is for the moment, just so is it limited when viewed over longer periods of time. What is ultimately decisive in
the life of a Folk is the will to self preservation, and the living forces that are at its disposal for this purpose.
Weapons can rust, forms can be outdated; the will itself can always renew both and move a Folk into the form
required by the need of the moment. The fact that we Germans had to give up our arms is of very slight
importance, insofar as I look at the material side of it. And yet this is the only thing our bourgeois politicians
see. What is depressing about the surrender of our arms, at most, lies in the attendant circumstances in which it
took place, in the attitude which it made possible, as well as in the wretched manner of doing it which we
experienced. It is outweighed by the destruction of the organisation of our Army. But even there the major
misfortune is not the elimination of the organisation as the bearer of the weapons we possess, but rather the
abolition of an institution for the training of our Folk to manliness, which was possessed by no other State in the
world, and which, indeed, no Folk needed more than our Germans. The contribution of our Old Army to the
general disciplining of our Folk for the highest achievements in all fields is incommensurable. Precisely our
Folk, which in its racial fragmentation so very much lacks qualities which, for example, characterise the English
~ a determined sticking together in time of danger — has received at least a part of this, which in other nations is
a natural, instinctive endowment, by way of its training through the army. The people who chatter so happily
about socialism do not at all realise that the highest socialist organisation of all has been the German Army.
This is also the reason for the fierce hatred of the typical capitalistically inclined Jews against an organisation in
which money is not identical with position, dignity, to say nothing of honour, but rather with achievement; and
in which the honour of belonging among people of a certain accomplishment is more greatly appreciated than
the possession of property and riches. This is a conception which to Jews seems as alien as it is dangerous, and
which, if only it became the general patrimony of a Folk, would signify an immunising defence against every
further Jewish danger. If, for example, an Officer's rank in the Army could be bought, this would be
comprehensible to Jews. They cannot understand an organisation - indeed they find it weird — which surrounds
with honour a man who either possesses no property at all, or whose income is only a fragment of that of
another man who precisely in this organisation is neither honoured nor esteemed. But therein lay the chief
strength of this incomparable old institution which unfortunately in the last thirty years of peace, however, also
showed signs of slowly becoming corroded. As soon as it became fashionable for individual Officers, especially
of noble descent, to pair off with, of all things, department store Jewesses, a danger arose for the Old Army
which, if the same development continued, might have some day grown into a great evil. At any rate, in the
times of Kaiser Wilhelm I, there was no understanding for such events. Nevertheless, all in all, the Germany
Army at the turn of the century was the most magnificent organisation in the world, and its effect on our
German Folk one that was more than beneficial. The breeding ground of German discipline, German efficiency,
forthright disposition, frank courage, bold aggressiveness, tenacious persistence and granite honourableness.
The conception of honour of a whole profession slowly but imperceptibly became the general patrimony of a
That this organisation was destroyed through the Peace Treaty Of Versailles was all the worse for our Folk, as
our internal enemies thereby finally received a free path for effecting their worst intentions. But our
incompetent bourgeoisie, for lack of any genius and ability to improvise, could not even find the most primitive
Thus, to be sure, our German Folk has lost possession of arms and their bearer. But this has been the case
countless times in the history of nations, without the latter having perished because of it. On the contrary:
nothing is easier to replace than a loss of weapons and every organisational form can again be created or
renewed. What is irreplaceable is the spoiled blood of a Folk, the destroyed inner value.
For in opposition to the present bourgeois conception that the Treaty Of Versailles has deprived our Folk of
arms, I can reply only that the real lack of weapons lies in our pacifistic democratic poisoning, as well as in
internationalism, which destroys and poisons our Folk's highest sources of power. For the source of a Folk's
whole power does not lie in its possession of weapons or in the organisation of its army, but in its inner value
which is represented through its racial significance, that is, the racial value of a Folk as such, through the
existence of the highest individual personality values, as well as through its healthy attitude toward the idea of
In coming before the public as National Socialists with this conception of the real strength of a Folk, we know
that today the whole of public opinion is against us. But this is indeed the deepest meaning of our new doctrine,
which as a world view separates us from others.
Since our point of departure is that one Folk is not equal to another, the value of a Folk is also not equal to the
value of another Folk. If, however, the value of a Folk is not equal to another, then every Folk, apart from the
numerical value deriving from its count, still has a specific value which is peculiar to it, and which cannot be
fully like that of any other Folk. The expressions of this specific, special value of a Folk can be of the most
varied kind and be in the most varied fields; but collected together they result in a standard for the general
valuation of a Folk. The ultimate expression of this general valuation is the historical, cultural image of a Folk,
which reflects the sum of all the radiations of its blood value or of the race values united in it.
This special value of a Folk, however, is in no way merely aesthetic cultural, but a general life value as such.
For it forms the life of a Folk in general, moulds and shapes it and, therefore, also provides all those forces
which a Folk can muster in order to overcome the resistances of life. For every cultural deed, viewed in human
terms, is in truth a defeat for the hitherto existing barbarism, every cultural creation [thereby] a help to man's
ascent above his formerly drawn limitations and thereby a strengthening of the position of these Folks. Thus a
power for the assertion of life truly also lies in the so called cultural values of a Folk. Consequently the greater
the inner powers of a Folk in this direction, the stronger also the countless possibilities for the assertion of life
in all fields of the struggle for existence. Consequently the higher the race value of a Folk, the greater its general
life value [through] which it can stake in favour of its life, in the struggle and strife with other Folks.
The importance of the blood value of a Folk, however, only becomes totally effective when this value is
recognised by a Folk, properly valued and appreciated. Folks who do not understand this value or who no
longer have a feeling for it for lack of a natural instinct, thereby also immediately begin to lose it. Blood mixing
and lowering of the race are then the consequences which, to be sure, at the beginning are not seldom
introduced through a so called predilection for things foreign, which in reality is an underestimation of one's
own cultural values as against alien Folks. Once a Folk no longer appreciates the cultural expression of its own
spiritual life conditioned through its blood, or even begins to feel ashamed of it, in order to turn its attention to
alien expressions of life, it renounces the strength which lies in the harmony of its blood and the cultural life
which has sprung from it. It becomes torn apart, unsure in its judgement of the world picture and its
expressions, loses the perception and the feeling for its own purposes, and in place of this it sinks into a
confusion of international ideas, conceptions, and the cultural hodgepodge springing from them. Then the Jew
can make his entry in any form, and this master of international poisoning and race corruption will not rest until
he has thoroughly uprooted and thereby corrupted such a Folk. The end is then the loss of a definite unitary race
value and as a result, the final decline.
Hence every existing race value of a Folk is also ineffective, if not indeed endangered, as long as a Folk does
not consciously remind itself of its own and nurse it with great care, building and basing all its hopes primarily
For this reason, international mindedness is to be regarded as the mortal enemy of these values. In its place the
profession of faith in the value of one's own Folk must pervade and determine the whole life and action of a
The more the truly eternal factor for the greatness and the importance of a Folk is sought in the Folk value, the
less will this value as such achieve a total effectiveness if the energies and talents of a Folk, at first slumbering,
do not find the man who will awaken it.
For so little as mankind, which is made up of different race values, possesses a uniform average value, just as
little is the personality value within a Folk the same among all members. Every deed of a Folk, in whatever field
it might be, is the result of the creative activity of a personality. No distress can be redressed solely by the
wishes of those affected by it, as long as this general wish does not find its solution in a man chosen from a Folk
for this task. Majorities have never wrought creative achievements. Never have they given discoveries to
mankind. The individual person has always been the originator of human progress. Indeed a Folk of a definite
inner race value, so far as this value is generally visible in its cultural or other achievements, must at the outset
possess the personality values, for without their emergence and creative activity the cultural image of that Folk
would never have come into being, and therefore the possibility of any inference as to the inner value of such a
Folk would be lacking. When I mention the inner value of a Folk, I appraise it out of the sum of achievements
lying before my eyes, and thereby at the same time I confirm the existence of the specific personality values
which acted as the representatives of the race value of a Folk and created the cultural image. As much as race
value and personality value seem to be linked together, because a racially valueless Folk cannot produce
important creative personalities from this source — as, conversely, it seems impossible to infer, for example, the
existence of race value from the lack of creative personalities and their achievements — just as much can a Folk,
nevertheless, by the nature of the formal construction of its organism, of the Folk Community or of the State,
promote the expression of its personality values, or at least facilitate it, or indeed even prevent it.
Once a Folk installs the majority as the rulers of its life, that is to say, once it introduces presentday democracy
in the western conception, it will not only damage the importance of the concept of personality, but block the
effectiveness of the personality value. Through a formal construction of its life, it prevents the rise and the work
of individual creative persons
For this is the double curse of the democratic parliamentary system prevailing today: not only is it itself
incapable of bringing about really creative achievements, but it also prevents the emergence and thereby the
work of those men who somehow threateningly rise above the level of the average. In all times the man whose
greatness lies above the average measure of the general stupidity, inadequacy, cowardice, and arrogance too,
has always appeared most threatening to the majority. Add to this that, through democracy, inferior persons
must, almost as a law, become leaders, so that this system applied logically to any institution devaluates the
whole mass of leaders, insofar as one can call them that at all. This resides in the irresponsibility lying in the
nature of democracy. Majorities are phenomena that are too elusive to be grasped so that they can somehow be
charged with responsibility. The leaders set up by them are in truth only executors of the will of the majorities.
Hence their task is less that of producing creative plans or ideas, in order to carry them out with the support of
an available administrative apparatus, than it is to collect the momentary majorities required for the execution of
definite projects. Thus the majorities are adjusted less to the projects than the projects are to the majorities. No
matter what the result of such an action may be, there is no one who can be held concretely accountable. This is
all the more so as each decision that is actually adopted is the result of numerous compromises, which each will
also exhibit in its character and content. Who then is to be made responsible for it?
Once a purely personally drawn responsibility is eliminated, the most compelling reason for the rise of a
vigorous leadership falls away. Compare the army organisation [institution], oriented to the highest degree
toward authority and responsibility of the individual person, with our democratic civil institutions, especially in
relation to the results of the leadership training on both sides, and you will be horrified. In one case an
organisation of men who are as courageous and joyous in responsibility as they are competent in their tasks, and
in the other, incompetents too cowardly to assume responsibility. For four and a half years the German Army
organisation withstood the greatest coalition of enemies of all times. The civil, democratically decomposed
domestic leadership literally collapsed at the first thrust of a few hundred ragamuffins and deserters.
The pitiful lack of really great leading minds among the German Folk finds its most simple explanation in the
desolate disintegration which we see before us through the democratic parliamentary system which is slowly
corroding our whole public life.
Nations must decide. Either they want majorities or brains. The two are never compatible. Up to now, however,
brains have always created greatness on this Earth, and what they created was again destroyed mostly through
Thus, on the basis of its general race value, a Folk can certainly entertain a justified hope that it can bring real
minds into existence. But then it must seek forms in the mode of construction of its national body which do not
artificially, indeed systematically, restrict such brains in their activity, and erect a wall of stupidity against them,
in short, which prevent them from achieving efficacy.
Otherwise one of the most powerful sources of a Folk's strength is blocked.
The third factor of the strength of a Folk is its healthy natural instinct for self preservation. From it result
numerous heroic virtues, which by themselves make a Folk take up the struggle for life. No State leadership will
be able to have great successes, if the Folk whose interests it must represent is too cowardly and wretched to
stake itself for these interests. No State leadership, of course, can expect that a Folk possess heroism, which it
itself does not educate to heroism. Just as internationalism harms and thereby weakens the existing race value,
and as democracy destroys the personality value, so pacifism paralyses the natural strength of the self
preservation of Folks.
These three factors — the race value as such, the existing personality values, as well as the healthy instinct of
self preservation — are the sources of strength, from which a wise and bold domestic policy time and again can
draw the weapons which are necessary for the self assertion of a Folk. Then the army establishments and the
technical questions regarding weapons always find the solutions suitable to support a Folk in the hard struggle
for freedom and daily bread.
If the domestic leadership of a Folk loses sight of this standpoint, or believes that it must arm for the struggle in
terms of weapon technique only, it can achieve as much momentary success as it pleases, but the future does not
belong to such a Folk. Hence the limited preparation for a war was never the task of truly great legislators and
statesmen of this Earth, but rather the unlimited inner and thorough training of a Folk, so that its future could be
secured almost as by law, according to all human reason. Then even wars lose the isolated character of more or
less immense surprises, but instead are integrated into a natural, indeed self evident, system of fundamental,
well grounded, permanent development of a Folk.
That present State leaders pay little attention to this viewpoint is partly due to the nature of democracy, to which
they owe their very existence, but secondly to the fact that the State has become a purely formal mechanism
which appears to them as an aim in itself, which must not in the least coincide with the interests of a specific
Folk. Folk and State have become two different concepts. It will be the task of the National Socialist Movement
to bring about a fundamental change here.
ELEMENTS OF FOREIGN POLICY
Consequently if the task of domestic policy — besides the obvious one of satisfying the so called questions of
the day ~ must be the steeling and strengthening of a nation by means of a systematic cultivation and promotion
of its inner values, the task of foreign policy is to correspond to and collaborate with this policy in order to
create and to secure the vital prerequisites abroad. A healthy foreign policy, therefore, will always keep the
winning of the basis of a Folk's sustenance immovably in sight as its ultimate goal. Domestic policy must secure
the inner strength of a Folk so that it can assert itself in the sphere of foreign policy. Foreign policy must secure
the life of a Folk for its domestic political development. Hence domestic policy and foreign policy are not only
most closely linked, but must also mutually complement one another. The fact that in the great conjunctures of
human history domestic policy as well as foreign policy has paid homage to other principles is not at all a proof
of soundness, but rather proves the error of such action. Innumerable Nations and States have perished as a
warning example to us, because they did not follow the above mentioned elementary principles. How little man
thinks of the possibility of death during his life is a noteworthy fact. And how little he arranges the details of his
life in accordance with the experiences that innumerable men before him had to have and which, as such, are all
known to him. There are always exceptions who bear this in mind and who, by virtue of their personality, try to
force on their fellow men the laws of life that lay at the base of the experiences of past epochs. Hence it is
noteworthy that innumerable hygienic measures which perforce redound to the advantage of a Folk, and which
individually are uncomfortable, must be formally forced upon the main body of a Folk through the autocratic
standing of individual persons, in order however to disappear again when the authority of the personality is
extinguished through the mass insanity of democracy. The average man has the greatest fear of death and in
reality thinks of it most rarely. The important man concerns himself with it most emphatically, and nevertheless
fears it the least. The one lives blindly from day to day, sins heedlessly, in order suddenly to collapse before the
inevitable. The other observes its coming most carefully and, to be sure, looks it in the eye with calm and
Such is exactly the case in the lives of nations. It is often terrible to see how little men want to learn from
history, how with such imbecilic indifference they gloss over their experiences, how thoughtlessly they sin
without considering that it is precisely through their sins that so and so many Nations and States have perished,
indeed vanished from the Earth. And indeed how little they concern themselves with the fact that even for the
short time span for which we possess an insight into history, States and Nations have arisen which were
sometimes almost gigantic in size, but which two thousand years later vanished without a trace, that world
powers once ruled cultural spheres of which only Sagas give us any information, that giant cities have sunk into
ruins, and that their rubble heap has hardly survived to show presentday mankind at least the site on which they
were located. The cares, hardships and sufferings of these millions and millions of individual men, who as a
living substance were at one time the bearers and victims of these events, are almost beyond all imagination.
Unknown men. Unknown soldiers of history. And truly, how indifferent is the present. How unfounded its
eternal optimism, and how ruinous its wilful ignorance, its incapacity to see, and its unwillingness to learn. And
if it depended on the broad masses, the game of the child playing with the fire with which he is unfamiliar
would repeat itself uninterruptedly and also to an infinitely greater extent. Hence it is the task of men who feel
themselves called as educators of a Folk to learn on their own from history, and to apply their knowledge in a
practical manner [now], without regard to the view, understanding, ignorance or even the refusal of the mass.
The greatness of a man is all the more important, the greater his courage, in opposition to a generally prevailing
but ruinous view, to lead by his better insight to general victory. His victory will appear all the greater, the more
enormous the resistances which had to be overcome, and the more hopeless the struggle seemed at first.
The National Socialist Movement would have no right to regard itself as a truly great phenomenon in the life of
the German Folk, if it could not muster the courage to learn from the experiences of the past, and to force the
laws of life it represents on the German Folk despite all resistance. As powerful as its inner reform work will be
in this connection, equally it must [may] never forget that in the long run there will be no resurgence of our Folk
if its activity in the sphere of foreign policy does not succeed in securing the general precondition for the
sustenance of our Folk. Hence it has become the fighter for freedom and bread in the highest sense of the word.
Freedom and bread is the simplest and yet, in reality, the greatest foreign policy slogan that can exist for any
Folk: the freedom of being able to order and regulate the life of a Folk, according to its own interests, and the
bread that this Folk requires for its existence.
If today, therefore, I come forward as a critic of our Folk's leadership in the sphere of foreign policy both past
and present, I am aware that the errors which I see today have also been seen by others. What distinguishes me
from the latter perhaps is only the fact that in most cases it has only involved critical perceptions having no
practical consequences, whereas, on the basis of my insight into the errors and faults of former and present
German domestic and foreign policy, I strive to deduce proposals for a change and improvement and to forge
the instrument with which these changes and improvements can some day be realised.
For example, the foreign policy of the Wilhelminian period was in many cases viewed by not a few people as
catastrophic and characterised accordingly. Innumerable warnings came, especially from the circles of the Pan
German League of that time, which were justified in the highest sense of the word. I can put myself in the tragic
situation that befell all these men who raised their voices in warning, and who saw how and in what a Folk
perishes, and yet were not able to help. In the last decades of the unfortunate foreign policy of the pre War
period in Germany, parliament, that is, democracy, was not powerful enough to choose the heads for the
political leadership of the Reich by itself. This was still an imperial right, whose formal existence no one yet
dared to shake. But the influence of democracy had grown so strong, however, that a certain direction already
seemed to be prescribed to the imperial decisions. Hence this had disastrous consequences, for now a national
minded man who raised his voice in warning, on the one hand, could no longer count on being invested with a
very responsible post against the pronounced tendency of democracy, whereas, conversely, on the basis of
general patriotic ideas, he could not fight against His Majesty The Kaiser with the final weapon of opposition.
The idea of a March On Rome in pre War Germany would have been absurd. Thus the national opposition
found itself in the worst of situations. Democracy had not yet triumphed, but it already stood in a furious
struggle against the monarchic conceptions of government. The monarchical State itself responded to the
struggle of democracy, not with the determination to destroy the latter, but rather with endless concessions.
Anyone who at that time took a stand against one of the two institutions ran the danger of being attacked by
both. Anyone who opposed an imperial decision on national grounds was proscribed by patriotic circles as
much as he was abused by the adherents of democracy. Anyone who took a position against democracy was
fought by democracy and left in the lurch by the patriots. Indeed, he ran the danger of being most ignominiously
betrayed by German officialdom in the wretched hope that through such a sacrifice it could gain Jehovah's
approval, and temporarily stop the yelping of the pack of Jewish press hounds. Under the conditions of that
time, there was no prospect at hand of making one's way to a responsible position in the leadership of the
German Government against the will of the democrats or against the will of His Majesty The Kaiser, and
thereby being able to change the course of foreign policy. Further, this led to the fact that German foreign
policy could be contested exclusively on paper, which consequently launched a criticism that necessarily took
on the characteristic features of journalism, the longer it continued. The consequence of this, however, was that
increasingly less value was placed on positive proposals, in view of the lack of any possibility of their
realisation, whereas the purely critical consideration of foreign policy occasioned the innumerable objections
that one could adduce in all their fullness, all the more so because it was hoped that thereby one could
overthrow the bad regime responsible. To be sure this was not achieved by the critics of that time. It was not the
regime of that time which was overthrown, but the German Reich and consequently the German Folk. What
they had foretold for decades had now come to pass. We cannot think of these men without a deep compassion,
men condemned by fate to foresee a collapse for twenty years, and who now, having not been heeded and hence
in no position to be of help, had to live to see their Folk's most tragic catastrophe.
Aged in years, care worn and embittered, and yet full of the idea that, now, after the overthrow of the Imperial
Government, they had to help, they again tried to make their influence felt for the resurgence of our Folk. For
ever so many reasons this was futile, to be sure.
When the revolution shattered the Imperial sceptre and raised democracy to the throne, the critics of that time
were as far from the possession of a weapon with which to overthrow democracy as formerly they had been
from being able to influence the Imperial Government. In their decades of activity, they had been geared so
much to a purely literary treatment of these problems that they not only lacked the real means of power to
express their opinion on a situation which was only a reaction to the shouting in the streets; they had also lost
the capacity to try to organise a manifestation of power which had to be more than a wave of written protests if
it were to be really effective. They had all seen the germ and the cause of the decline of the German Reich in the
old parties. With a sense of their own inner cleanliness, they had to scorn the suggestion that they too now
wanted to play the game of the political parties. And yet, they could carry out their view in practice only if a
large number gave them the opportunity of representing it. And even though they wanted a thousand times to
smash the political parties, they still indeed first had to form a party which viewed its task as that of smashing
the other parties. That such did not come to pass was due to the following reasons: the more the political
opposition of these men was forced to express itself purely journalistically, the more it adopted a criticism
which, though it exposed all the weaknesses of the system of that time and shed light on the defects of the
individual foreign policy measures, failed to produce positive proposals because these men lacked any
possibility of personal responsibility, especially since in political life there is naturally no action which does not
have its dark as well as its bright sides. There is no political combination in foreign policy that we can ever
regard as completely satisfactory. For as matters stood then, the critic, forced to view his main task as the
elimination of a regime recognised as altogether incompetent, had no occasion, outside of the useful critical
consideration of this regime's actions, to come forward with positive proposals, which in consequence of the
objections attached to them could just as easily have been subjected to a critical elucidation. The critic will
never want to weaken the impact of his criticism by bringing forward proposals which themselves could be
subjected to criticism. Gradually, however, the purely critical thinking of those who then represented the
national opposition became such a second nature that even today they consider domestic and foreign policy
critically, and deal with it only critically. Most of them have remained critics, who therefore cannot even today
make their way to a clear, unambiguous, positive decision, neither in domestic nor in foreign policy, partly
because of their insecurity and irresoluteness, partly because of their fear of thereby furnishing the enemy with
ready ammunition for criticism of themselves. Thus they would like to bring about improvements in a thousand
things, and yet cannot decide upon taking a single step because even this very step is not completely
satisfactory, and possesses doubtful points; in short it has its darker sides which they perceive and which make
them fearful. Now, leading a nation from a deep and difficult illness is not a question of finding a prescription
that itself is completely free of poison; not seldom it involves destroying a poison through an antidote. In order
to eliminate conditions recognised as deadly we must have the courage to make and carry out decisions which
contain dangers in themselves. As a critic I have the right to examine all the possibilities of a foreign policy and
to take them apart in detail according to the doubtful aspects or possibilities they bear in themselves. As the
political leader, however, who wants to make history, I must decide upon one way, even if sober consideration a
thousand times tells me that it entails certain dangers and that it also will not lead to a completely satisfying
end. Hence I cannot renounce the possibility of success because it is not a hundred percent certain. I must
neglect no step for the reason that perhaps it will not be a full one, if the spot in which I momentarily find
myself might bring my unconditional death the next instant. Neither, therefore, may I renounce a political action
for the reason that, besides benefiting my Folk, it will also benefit another Folk. Indeed, I may never do this
when the benefit to the other Folk will be greater than that to my own, and when in the case of a failure to take
action the misfortune of my Folk remains with absolute certainty.
Indeed, right now I encounter the most stubborn resistance in the purely critical way of viewing things that
many people have. They recognise this and this and this as good and as correct, but despite this they cannot join
us because this and this and this is dubious. They know that Germany and our Folk will perish, but they cannot
join the rescue action because here, too, they detect this or that which is at least a blemish that mars its beauty.
In short, they see the decline and cannot muster up the strength of determination to battle against it, because in
the resistance and in this deed itself they already again begin to smell out some possible objection or other.
This deplorable mentality owes its existence to [springs from] a still further evil. Today there are not a few men,
especially the so called educated ones, who, when they finally make up their minds to fall in line with a certain
action or even to promote it, first carefully weigh the percentage of the probability of its success, in order then
to calculate the extent of their active involvement likewise on the basis of this percentage. Thus this means:
because, for example, any decision on foreign policy or domestic policy is not completely satisfying and hence
does not seem certain to succeed, one should also not espouse it unreservedly with the full dedication of all his
powers. These unhappy souls have no understanding at all of the fact that, on the contrary, a decision which I
deem to be necessary, whose success however does not seem completely assured, or whose success will offer
only a partial satisfaction, must be fought for with an increased energy so that what it lacks in the possibility of
success in percentage points, must be made up for in the energy of its execution. Thus only one question is to be
examined: whether a situation demands a definite decision or not. If such a decision is established and
recognised as incontestably necessary, then its execution must be carried out with the most brutal ruthlessness
and the highest employment of strength even if the ultimate result will be a thousand times unsatisfactory or in
need of improvement or possibly will meet with only a small percentage of probability of success.
If a man appears to have cancer and is unconditionally doomed to die, it would be senseless to refuse an
operation, because the percentage of the possibility of success is slight, and because the patient, even should it
be successful, will not be a hundred percent healthy. It would be still more senseless were the surgeon to
perform the operation itself only with limited or partial energy in consequence of these limited possibilities. But
it is this senselessness that these men expect uninterruptedly in domestic and foreign policy matters. Because
the success of a political operation is not fully assured or will not be completely satisfactory in result, not only
do they renounce its execution, but expect, should it take place nevertheless, that at least it will ensue only with
restrained power, without a complete dedication, and always in silent hope that perhaps they can keep a little
loophole open through which to make their retreat. This is the soldier who is attacked by a tank on an open
battlefield and who, in view [in consequence] of the uncertainty of the success of his resistance, conducts it at
the outset with only half his strength. His little loophole is flight, and certain death is his end.
No, the German Folk is today attacked by a pack of booty hungry enemies from within and without. The
continuation of this state of affairs is our death. We must seize every possibility of breaking it, even if its result
may a thousand times likewise have its weaknesses or objectionable sides as such. And every such possibility
must therefore be fought out with the utmost energy.
The success of the battle of Leuthen was uncertain, but it was necessary to fight it. Frederick The Great did not
win because he went toward the enemy with only half his strength, but because he compensated for the
uncertainty of success by the abundance of his genius, the boldness and determination of his troop dispositions,
and the derring do of his regiments in battle.
I'm afraid, indeed, that I will never be understood by my bourgeois critics, at least as long as success does not
prove to them the soundness of our action. Here the man of the Folk has a better counsellor. He sets the
assurance of his instinct and the faith of his heart in place of the sophistry of our intellectuals.
If I deal with foreign policy in this work, however, I do so not as a critic, but as the Leader Of The National
Socialist Movement, which I know will some day make history. If I am, therefore, nevertheless forced to
consider the past and the present critically, it is only for the purpose of establishing the only positive way, and
to make it appear understandable. Just as the National Socialist Movement not only criticises domestic policy,
but possesses its own philosophically grounded Program, likewise in the sphere of foreign policy it must not
only recognise what others have done wrongly, but deduce its own action on the basis of this knowledge.
Thus I know well that even our highest success will not create a hundred percent happiness, for in view of
human imperfection and the general circumstances conditioned by it, ultimate perfection always lies only in
programmatic theory. I also know, further, that no success can be achieved without sacrifice, just as no battle
can be fought without losses. But the awareness of the incompleteness of a success will never be able to keep
me from preferring such an incomplete success to the perceived complete downfall. I will then strain every
nerve to try to offset what is lacking in the probability of success or the extent of success through greater
determination, and to communicate this spirit to the Movement led by me. Today we are fighting against an
enemy front which we must and will break through. We calculate our own sacrifices, weigh the extent of the
possible success, and will stride forward to the attack, regardless of whether it will come to a halt ten or a
thousand kilometres behind the present lines. For wherever our success ends, it will always be only the point of
departure for a new struggle.
w w w . adolfhitler . ws
NATIONAL SOCIALIST FOREIGN POLICY
I am a German nationalist. This means that I proclaim my nationality. My whole thought and action belongs to
it. I am a socialist. I see no class and no social estate before me, but that community of the Folk, made up of
people who are linked by blood, united by a language, and subject to a same general fate. I love this Folk and
hate only its majority of the moment, because I view the latter to be just as little representative of the greatness
of my Folk as it is of its happiness.
The National Socialist Movement which I lead today views its goal as the liberation of our Folk within and
without. It aims to give our Folk domestically those forms of life which seem to be suitable to its nature and to
be a benefit to it as the expression of this nature. It aims thereby to preserve the character of this Folk and to
further cultivate it through the systematic fostering of its best men and best virtues. It fights for the external
freedom of this Folk, because only under freedom can this life find that form which is serviceable to its Folk. It
fights for the daily bread of this Folk because it champions [in hunger] this Folk's right to life. It fights for the
required space, because it represents this Folk's right to life.
By the concept domestic policy the National Socialist Movement therefore understands the promotion,
strengthening and consolidation of the existence of our Folk through the introduction of forms and laws of life
which correspond to the nature of our Folk, and which can bring its fundamental powers to full effectiveness.
By the concept foreign policy it understands the safeguarding of this development through the preservation of
freedom and the creation of the most necessary prerequisites for life.
Thus, in terms of foreign policy, the National Socialist Movement is distinguished from previous bourgeois
parties by, for example, the following: The foreign policy of the national bourgeois world has in truth always
been only a border policy; as against that, the policy of the National Socialist Movement will always be a
territorial one. In its boldest plans, for example, the German bourgeoisie will aspire to the unification of the
German nation, but in reality it will finish with a botched up regulation of the borders.
The National Socialist Movement, on the contrary, will always let its foreign policy be determined by the
necessity to secure the space necessary to the life of our Folk. It knows no Germanising or Teutonising, as in the
case of the national bourgeoisie, but only the spread of its own Folk. It will never see in the subjugated, so
called Germanised, Czechs or Poles a national, let alone Folkish, strengthening, but only the racial weakening
of our Folk. For its national conception is not determined by earlier patriotic ideas of government, but rather by
Folkish, racial insights. Thus the point of departure of its thinking is wholly different from that of the bourgeois
world. Hence much of what seems to the national bourgeoisie like the political success of the past and present,
is for us either a failure or the cause of a later misfortune. And much that we regard as self evident seems
incomprehensible or even monstrous to the German bourgeoisie. Nevertheless a part of German youth,
especially from bourgeois circles, will be able to understand me. Neither I nor the National Socialist Movement
figure to find any support whatsoever in the circles of the political national bourgeoisie, active at present, but
we certainly know that at least a part of the youth will find its way into our ranks.
GERMAN NEEDS AND AIMS
The question of a nation's foreign policy is determined by factors which lie partly within a nation, and partly
given by the environment. In general the internal factors are the basis for the necessity of a definite foreign
policy as well as for the amount of strength required for its execution. Folks living on an impossible soil surface
fundamentally will tend to enlarge their territory, consequently their living space, at least as long as they are
under healthy leadership. This process, originally grounded only in the concern over sustenance, appeared so
beneficent in its felicitous solution that it gradually attained the fame of success. This means that the
enlargement of space, at first grounded in pure expediencies, became in the course of mankind's development a
heroic deed, which then also took place even when the original preconditions or inducements were lacking.
Later, the attempt to adapt the living space to increased population turned into unmotivated wars of conquest,
which in their very lack of motivation contained the germ of the subsequent reaction. Pacifism is the answer to
it. Pacifism has existed in the world ever since there have been wars whose meaning no longer lay in the
conquest of territory for a Folk's sustenance. Since then it has been war's eternal companion. It will again
disappear as soon as war ceases to be an instrument of booty hungry or power hungry individuals or nations,
and as soon as it again becomes the ultimate weapon with which a Folk fights for is daily bread.
Even in the future the enlargement of a Folk's living space for the winning of bread will require staking the
whole strength of the Folk. If the task of domestic policy is to prepare this commitment of the Folk's strength,
the task of a foreign policy is to wield this strength in such a manner that the highest possible success seems
assured. This, of course, is not conditioned only by the strength of the Folk, ready for action at any given time,
but also by the power of the resistances. The disproportion in strength between Folks struggling with one
another for land leads repeatedly to the attempt, by way of alliances, either to emerge as conquerors themselves
or to put up resistance to the overpowerful conqueror.
This is the beginning of the policy of alliances.
After the victorious war of 1870-1871, the German Folk achieved a position of infinite esteem in Europe.
Thanks to the success of Bismarckian statesmanship and Prussian German military accomplishments, a great
number of German States, which heretofore had been only loosely linked, and which, indeed, had not seldom in
history faced each other as enemies, were brought together in one Reich. A province of the old German Reich,
lost 170 years before, permanently annexed at that time by France after a brief predatory war, came back to the
mother country. Numerically thereby the greatest part of the German nation, at least in Europe, was
amalgamated in a unitary State structure. It was cause for concern that ultimately this State structure included
million Poles and Alsatians and Lorrainers become Frenchmen. This did not correspond either
with the idea of a National or of a Folkish State. The national State of bourgeois conception must at least secure
the unity of the State language, indeed down to the last school and the last street sign. Further it must include
the German idea in the education and life of these Folk and make them the bearers of this idea.
There have been weak attempts at this; perhaps it was never seriously wanted and in practice the opposite has
The Folkish State, conversely, must under no conditions annex Poles with the intention of wanting to make
Germans out of them some day. On the contrary, it must muster the determination either to seal off these alien
racial elements, so that the blood of its own Folk will not be corrupted again, or it must without further ado
remove them and hand over the vacated territory to its own National Comrades.
That the bourgeois national State was not capable of such a deed is obvious. Neither had anyone ever thought
about it, nor would anyone ever have done such a thing. But even if there had been a will to do this, there would
not have been sufficient strength to carry it out, less because of the repercussions in the rest of the world than
because of the complete lack of understanding that such an action would have found in the ranks of the so called
national bourgeoisie. The bourgeois world had once presumed it could overthrow the feudal world, whereas in
reality it continued the latter's mistakes through bourgeois grocers, lawyers, and journalists. It has never
possessed an idea of its own, but indeed a measureless conceit and money.
But a world cannot be conquered with this alone, nor another one built. Hence the period of bourgeois rule in
world history will be as brief as it is indecently contemptible.
Thus, right from its foundation, the German Reich had also assimilated toxins into the new State structure
whose deleterious effect could all the less be evaded as bourgeois equality, to top things off, gave Jews the
possibility of using them as their surest shock troops.
Aside from that, the Reich nevertheless encompassed only a part of the German Nation, even though the largest.
It would have been self evident that even if the new State had not possessed any great foreign policy aim of a
Folkish character, at least as a so called bourgeois national State it should have kept in view further unification
and consolidation of the German Nation, as its minimum foreign policy aim. This was something that the
bourgeois national Italian State never forgot.
Thus the German Folk had obtained a National State which in reality did not completely encompass the Nation.
Thus the new borders of the Reich, viewed in a national political sense, were incomplete. They ran straight
across German language areas, and even through parts which, at least formerly, had belonged to the German
Union, even if in an informal way.
But these new borders of the Reich were even more unsatisfactory from a military viewpoint. Everywhere were
unprotected, open areas which, especially in the West, were, in addition, of decisive importance for the German
economy, extending far beyond the border areas. These borders were all the more unsuitable in a military
political sense, since grouped around Germany were several great States with foreign policy aims as aggressive
as their military means were plentiful. Russia in the east, France in the west. Two military States, one of which
cast covetous glances at Eastern and Western Prussia, while the other tirelessly pursued its centuries old foreign
policy goal for the erection of a frontier on the Rhine. In addition there was England, the mightiest maritime
power of the world. The more extensive and unprotected the German land borders were in the east and west, the
more restricted, by contrast, was the possible operational basis of a naval war. Nothing had made the fight
against German submarine warfare easier than the spatially conditioned restriction of its port areas. It was easier
to close off and patrol the triangle shaped body of water than would have been the case with a coast, say, 600 or
800 kilometres long. Taken all in all, the new borders of the Reich as such were not at all satisfactory from a
military point of view. Nowhere was there a natural obstacle or a natural defence. As against this, however,
everywhere were highly developed power States with hostile thoughts in the back of their minds. The
Bismarckian premonition that the new Reich founded by him would once again have to be protected with the
sword was most deeply justified. Bismarck expressed what was fulfilled forty five years later.
As little satisfactory as the new Reich borders could be in a national and military political sense, they were
nevertheless even still more unsatisfactory from the standpoint of the possibility of sustenance of the German
Germany in fact was always an overpopulated area. On the one hand this lay in the hemmed in position of the
German nation in Central Europe, on the other in the cultural and actual importance of this Folk and its purely
human fertility. Since its historical entry into world history, the German Folk has always found itself in need of
space. Indeed, its first political emergence was forced primarily by that need. Since the beginning of the
migration of Folks, our Folk has never been able to settle this need for space, except through conquest by the
sword or through a reduction of its own population. This reduction of the population was sometimes effected
through hunger, sometimes through emigration, and at times through endless, unfortunate wars. In recent times
it has been effected by voluntary birth control.
The wars of the years 1864, 1866 and 1870-71, had their meaning in the national political unification of a part
of the German Folk and thus in the final end of German State political fragmentation. The black, white, red flag
of the new Reich therefore did not have the slightest ideological meaning, but rather a German national one in
the sense that it overcame the former State political fragmentation. Thus the black, white, red flag became a
symbol of the German Federal State which had overcome the fragmentation. The fact that, notwithstanding and
despite its youth, it enjoyed a positively idolatrous veneration, lay in the manner of its baptism, for indeed the
very birth of the Reich towered infinitely above otherwise similar events. Three victorious wars, the last of
which became a literal miracle of German statesmanship, German military leadership, and German heroism, are
the deeds from which the new Reich was born. And when it finally announced its existence to the surrounding
world in the imperial proclamation, through its greatest imperial herald, the thunder and rumbling of the
batteries at the front surrounding Paris reechoes in the blare and the flourish of the trumpets.
Never before had an Empire been proclaimed in such a fashion.
But the black, white, red flag appeared to the German Folk as the symbol of this unique event exactly as the
black, red and yellow flag is and will remain a symbol of the November Revolution.
As much as the individual German States increasingly fused with one another under this banner, and as much as
the new Reich secured their State political prestige and recognition abroad, the founding of the Reich still did
not change anything with regard to the major need, our Folk's lack of territory. The great military political deeds
of our Folk had not been able to give the German Folk a border within which it would have been able to secure
its sustenance by itself. On the contrary: in proportion as the esteem of German nationality rose through the new
Reich, it became all the more difficult for the individual German to turn his back on such a State as an emigrant,
whereas, conversely, a certain national pride and a joy in life, which we find almost incomprehensible today,
taught that large families were a blessing rather than a burden.
After 1870-1871 there was a visibly rapid increase in the German population. In part its sustenance was covered
through the utmost industry and great scientific efficiency with which the German now cultivated his fields
within the secured frontiers of his Folk. But a great part, if not the greatest, of the increase in German soil
productivity was swallowed up by an at least equally great increase of the general living requirements which the
citizen of the new State now likewise claimed. The nation of sauerkraut eaters and potato annihilators, as the
French derisively characterised it, now slowly began to adjust its living standard to that of other Folks in the
world. Thus only a part of the yield of the increase of German agriculture was available for the net population
As a matter of fact, the new Reich never knew how to banish this need. Even in the new Reich, at first, an
attempt was made to keep the relation between population and land within tolerable limits through a permanent
emigration. For the most shattering proof of the soundness of our assertion of the towering importance of the
relation between population and land lies in the fact that, in consequence of this disproportion, specifically in
Germany during the 1870s, 1880s and 1890s, the distress led to an epidemic of emigration which even at the
beginning of the 1890s had swollen to a figure of nearly one and a quarter million people a year.
Thus the problem of the sustenance of the German Folk had not been solved for the existing human mass, not
even by the foundation of the new Reich. A further increase of the German Nation, however, could not take
place without such a solution. Regardless of how such a solution might turn out, it had to be found in any case.
Hence the most important problem of German foreign policy after 1870-1871 had to be the question of solving
the problem of sustenance.
MILITARY POWER AND FALLACY OF
BORDER RESTORATION AS GOAL
On November 1 1th, 1918, the armistice was signed in the forest of Compiegne. For this, fate had chosen a man
who was one of those bearing major guilt for the collapse of our Folk. Matthias Erzberger, deputy of the Centre,
and according to various assertions the bastard son of a servant girl and a Jewish employer, was the German
negotiator who affixed his name to a document which, compared and measured against the four and a half years
of heroism of our Folk, seems incomprehensible if we do not assume the deliberate intention to bring about
Matthias Erzberger himself had been a petty bourgeois annexationist, that is, one of those men who, especially
at the beginning of the war, had tried to remedy the lack of an official war aim in their own way and manner.
For even though in August, 1914, the entire German Folk instinctively felt that this struggle involved their
being or non being, nevertheless once the flames of the first enthusiasm were extinguished, they were not in any
way clear either about the threatening non being, or the necessity of remaining in being. The enormity of the
idea of a defeat and its consequences was slowly blotted out through a propaganda which had complete free rein
within Germany, and which twisted or altogether denied the real aims of the Entente in a way that was as adroit
as it was mendacious. In the second and especially in the third year of the War, it had also succeeded to some
extent in removing the fear of defeat from the German Folk, since, thanks to this propaganda, people no longer
believed in the enemy's annihilatory will. This was all the more terrible as, conversely, nothing was allowed to
be done which could inform the Folk of the minimum that had to be achieved in the interests of its future self
preservation, and as a reward for its unprecedented sacrifices. Hence the discussion over a possible war aim
took place only in more or less irresponsible circles and acquired the expression of the mode of thought as well
as the general political ideas of its respective representatives. While the sly Marxists, who had an exact
knowledge of the paralysing effect of a lack of a definite war aim, forbade themselves to have one altogether,
and for that matter talked only about the reestablishment of peace without annexations and reparations, at least
some of the bourgeois politicians sought to respond to the enormity of the bloodshed and the sacrilege of the
attack with definite counterdemands. All these bourgeois proposals were purely border rectifications and had
nothing at all to do with geopolitical ideas. At best they still thought of satisfying the expectations of German
princes who were unemployed at the time by the formation of buffer States. Thus even the founding of the
Polish State appeared as a wise decision in national political terms to the bourgeois world, aside from a few
exceptions. Individuals pushed economic viewpoints to the foreground according to which the border had to be
formed; for example, the necessity of winning the ore basin of Longwy and Briey; other strategical opinions, for
example, the necessity of possessing the Belgian fortresses on the Meuse River, and so on.
It should be self evident that this was no aim for a State engaged in a war against twenty six States, in which the
former had to take upon itself one of the most unprecedented bloodsheddings in history, while at home an entire
Folk was literally surrendered to hunger. The impossibility of justifying the necessity for enduring the War
helped to bring about its unfortunate outcome.
Hence when the collapse took place in the homeland, a knowledge of war aims existed even less, as their former
weak representatives had meanwhile moved further away from their former meagre demands. And this was
quite understandable. For to want to conduct a war of this unprecedented extent so that the borders instead of
running through Herbesthal should run through Liege, or so that instead of a Czarist commissar or governor, a
German princeling could be installed as potentate over some Russian province or other, would have been really
irresponsible and monstrous. It lay in the nature of German war aims, so far as they were at all subject to
discussion, that they were later altogether denied. Truly for such baubles a Folk should not have been kept for
even an hour longer in a war whose battlefields had slowly become an inferno.
The sole war aim that the monstrous bloodshed would have been worthy of could consist only in the assurance
to German soldiers of so and so many hundred thousand square kilometres, to be allotted to front line fighters as
property, or to be placed at the disposal of a general colonisation by Germans. With that the War would have
quickly lost the character of an imperial enterprise, and instead would have become a cause of the German Folk.
For, after all, the German grenadiers really had not shed their blood so that Poles might acquire a State, or so
that a German Prince might be set on a plush covered throne.
Thus in 1918 we stood at the end of a completely senseless and aimless squandering of the most precious
Once more had our Folk infinitely staked its heroism, courageous sacrifice, indeed defiance of death and
joyousness in responsibility, and nevertheless been forced to leave the battlefields weakened and beaten.
Victorious in a thousand battles and skirmishes, and in the end nevertheless defeated by those who had been
beaten. This was the handwriting on the wall for the German domestic and foreign policy of the pre War time
and the four and a half years of the bloody struggle itself.
Now after the collapse there arose the alarmed question, whether our German Folk had learned anything from
this catastrophe, whether those who had deliberately betrayed it up to this time would still determine its fate,
whether those who had so pitifully failed until this time would henceforth also dominate the future with their
phrases, or whether finally our Folk would be educated to a new way of thinking about domestic and foreign
policy and shift its action accordingly.
For if a miracle does not take place for our Folk, its path will be one of ultimate doom and destruction.
What is Germany's present situation? And what are the prospects for her future? And what kind of a future will
The collapse which the German Folk suffered in 1918 lies, as I want once more to establish here, not in the
overthrow of its military organisation, or in the loss of its weapons, but rather in its inner decay which was
revealed at that time, and which today increasingly appears. This inner decay lies just as much in respect to the
worsening of its racial value as in the loss of all those virtues which condition the greatness of a Folk, guarantee
its existence, and promote its future.
Blood value, the idea of personality, and the instinct for self preservation, slowly threatened to be lost to the
German Folk. Internationalism triumphs in its stead and destroys our Folk value, democracy spreads by stifling
the idea of personality, and in the end an evil pacifistic liquid manure poisons the mentality favouring bold self
preservation. We see the effects of this vice of mankind appear in the whole life of our Folk. Not only does it
make itself noticeable in the field of political concerns, no, but also in that of economy, and not least in that of
our cultural life, so that, if it is not brought to a halt once and for all, our Folk will be excluded from the number
of nations with a future.
The great domestic task of the future lies in the elimination of these general symptoms of the decay of our Folk.
This is the mission of the National Socialist Movement. A new nation must arise from this work which
overcomes even the worst evils of the present, the cleavage between the classes, for which the bourgeoisie and
Marxism are equally guilty.
The aim of this reform work of a domestic political kind must finally be the regaining of our Folk's strength for
the prosecution of its struggle for existence and thereby the strength to represent its vital interests abroad.
Our foreign policy is also presented by this with a task that it must fulfil. For the more domestic policy must
furnish the Folkish instrument of strength to foreign policy, the more must also foreign policy, through the
actions and measures it adopts, promote and support the formation of this instrument.
If the foreign policy task of the old bourgeois national State had primarily been that of the further unification in
Europe of those belonging to the German Nation in order then to work up to a higher territorial policy viewed in
Folkish terms, then the foreign policy task of the post War period must at the outset be one that promotes the
forging of the internal instrument of power. For the foreign policy aspirations of the pre War period had at their
disposal a State that perhaps was not very highly exigent in a Folkish sense, but which had a wonderful Army
establishment. Even if Germany of that time had long since ceased to place such an emphasis on the military, as
for example Old Prussia, and therefore was outmatched by other States, especially in the extent of the Army
organisation, nevertheless the inner quality of the Old Army was incomparably superior to all other similar
institutions. At that time this best instrument of the art of war stood at the disposal of a State leadership with a
bold foreign policy. In consequence of this instrument as well as of the general high esteem which it enjoyed,
the freedom of our Folk was not only a result of our factually proved strength, but rather of the general credit
that we possessed in consequence of this remarkable Army instrument, as well as partly in consequence of the
rest of the exemplarily clean State apparatus.
The German Folk no longer possesses this most important instrument for the defence of a nation's interests, or
at least it possesses it to a completely insufficient extent, and very far removed from the foundation which
conditioned its former strength.
The German Folk has acquired a mercenary Army. In Germany, these mercenary troops run the danger of
sinking to the level of policemen armed with special technical weapons. The comparison of the German
mercenary Army with the English turns out unfavourably to the Germans. The English mercenary army was
always the bearer of England's military defence and aggressive ideas as well as of her military tradition. In her
mercenary troops and the militia system peculiar to her, England possessed the Army organisation which, in
view of her insular position sufficed, indeed seemed suitable for fighting to the finish for England's vital
interests. The idea of manifesting English power of resistance in such a form in no way sprang from cowardice,
in order thereby to be able to spare shedding the blood of the English Folk. On the contrary. England fought
with mercenaries as long as they sufficed for the defence of England's interests. She called for volunteers
immediately the struggle required a greater commitment. She introduced general military conscription
immediately the needs of the country demanded it. For regardless of how the momentary organisation of the
English power of resistance looked, it was always committed in a dauntless struggle for England. And the
formal army organisation in England was always only an instrument for the defence of English interests,
committed with a will, which did not even shrink, if necessary, from demanding the blood of the whole nation.
Wherever England's interests were decisively at stake, she at any rate knew how to preserve a hegemony which,
considered purely technically, goes as far as the demand for a two power standard. If we compare the infinitely
responsible [solicitous] care shown here with the frivolousness with which Germany, and national bourgeois
Germany at that, neglected her armaments in the pre War period, we must still today be gripped by a deep
sadness. Just as England knew that her future, indeed her existence, depended on the strength of her fleet, so
should this bourgeois national Germany have known that the existence and future of the German Reich
depended on the strength of our land power. In Europe, Germany should have had to counter the two power
standard on land to the two power standard on the seas. And just as England with an iron determination saw a
reason for going to war at every violation of this standard, so did Germany have to prevent every attempt in
Europe to outflank her army through France and Russia by a military decision, even one which had to be
precipitated, and for which more than one favourable opportunity had presented itself. Even here this
bourgeoisie misused one of Bismarck's utterances in a most senseless way. Bismarck's assertion that he did not
intend to wage preventive war was joyfully seized upon by all weak, energyless and also irresponsible armchair
politicians as a cover for the disastrous consequences of their anything goes policy. Only thereby they
completely forgot that all three wars which Bismarck had conducted were wars which, at least according to the
conceptions of these anti preventive war peace philosophers, could have been avoided. Consider, for example,
what insults by Napoleon III in 1870 would have to be heaped on the German Republic of today for it to decide
to request M. Benedetti to moderate his tone somewhat. Neither Napoleon nor the whole French Folk would
ever have been able to incite the German Republic of today to a Sedan: or does one believe that if Bismarck had
not wanted a decision, the war of 1866 could not have been prevented? Now here it can be objected that this
was a question of wars with clearly set aims, and not of a kind whose only ground lies in the fear of an attack by
the enemy. But in reality this is only word splitting. Because Bismarck was convinced that the struggle with
Austria was inevitable, he prepared himself for it and carried it through when the occasion suited Prussia. The
reform of the French army by Marshal Niel made clearly perceptible the intention to give French policy and
French chauvinism a forceful weapon for an attack against Germany. As a matter of fact, it would doubtless
have been possible for Bismarck to bring the conflict to some kind of a peaceful solution in 1870. But it was
more expedient for him to fight it out to the finish at a time when the French army organisation had not yet
arrived at its full efficiency. Moreover, all these interpretations of Bismarckian utterances suffer from one thing,
namely, they confuse Bismarck the diplomat with a republican parliamentarian. How Bismarck himself judged
such utterances is best shown in his reply to a questioner before the outbreak of the Prussian Austrian War, who
would have very much liked to know whether Bismarck really intended to attack Austria, whereupon the latter,
with an impervious expression, replied: No, I have no intention of attacking Austria, but neither would I have
the intention of telling them, in case I wanted to attack her.
Moreover, the hardest war that had ever been fought by Prussia was a preventive war. When Frederick The
Great had received final knowledge of the intention of his old enemies, through a scribbler soul, he did not wait
until the others attacked, on the grounds of a fundamental rejection of a preventive war, but went immediately
over to the attack himself.
For Germany, any violation of the two power standard of necessity should have been a cause for a preventive
war. For what would it have been easier to answer before history: for a preventive war in 1904, which could
have defeated France when Russia seemed to be entangled in Eastern Asia, or for the World War which ensued
from this neglect, and which required many times the blood, and plunged our Folk into the abyss of defeat?
England never had such scruples. Her two power standard on the seas seemed to be the prerequisite for the
preservation of English independence. As long as she had the strength, she allowed no change to be made in this
situation. When, however, this two power standard was given up after the World War, it was then only under
the pressure of circumstances which were stronger than any contrary British intention. With the American
Union, a new power of such dimensions has come into being as threatens to upset the whole former power and
orders of rank of the States.
At any rate, up to now the English fleet was always the most striking proof, regardless of how the form of the
organisation of the land army looked, that decisively determined England's will to self preservation. This was
the reason why the English mercenary army never acquired the bad characteristics of other mercenary troops. It
was a fighting military body of wonderful individual training, with excellent weapons, and a conception of
service which viewed it as a sport. Thus what endowed this small body of troops with a special importance was
the direct contact with the visible manifestations in life of the British world empire. As this mercenary army had
fought for England's greatness in almost all parts of the world, it had thereby in like measure also come to know
England's greatness. The men who now in Southern Africa, now in Egypt, and at times in India, represented
England's interests as the possessors of her military prestige, through this also received an indelible impression
of the immense greatness of the British IMPERIVM.
Such an opportunity is completely lacking to the presentday German mercenary troops. Indeed, the more we
feel ourselves induced to make concessions to this spirit in the small Army itself, under the pressure of
pacifistic parliamentary majorities, which in reality represent traitors to their Folk and country, it gradually
ceases to be an instrument of war. Instead it becomes a police corps for the maintenance of peace and order,
which means, in reality, of peaceful subjugation. No army with a high intrinsic value can be trained, if the
preparation for war is not the aim of its existence. There are no armies for the maintenance of peace, but rather
only for the victorious fighting of wars to the end. The more, in short, one tries finally to unhinge the Reich
Defence from the tradition of the Old Army, the more will it itself become traditionless. For with troops, the
value of a tradition does not lie in a few successful quellings of internal strike revolts, or in preventing the
plundering of foodstuffs, but in the glory gained through victorious battles. In reality, however, the German
Reich Defence departs from the tradition of this glory in proportion as from year to year it ceases to be a
representative of the national idea. The more it finally kills the conscious, national, hence nationalistic spirit in
its own ranks, and removes its representatives, in order to give their posts to democrats and altogether ordinary
ambitious persons, all the more will it become alien to the Folk. Let the sly gentlemen not fancy that they can
make contact with the Folk by concessions to the pacifistic democratic part of our Folk. Any military
organisation as such is deeply hated by this part of the German Folk, as long as it is indeed military and not the
burglar protection agency of international pacifistic stock exchange interests. The only part to which an army
can have an inner relationship in a militarily valuable sense, is that nationally conscious core of our Folk which
not only thinks in a soldierly manner out of tradition, but rather, out of national love, is also the only part ready
to wear the grey tunic in defence of honour and freedom. It is necessary, however, that a military body maintain
intimate relations with those from whom it itself in the hour of need can supplement itself, and not with those
who betray it at every opportunity. Hence the present leaders of our so called Reich Defence can act as
democratically as they please; nevertheless, they will thereby never attain to a closer bond with the German
Folk, because the German Folk for which this is appropriate is not to be found in the democratic camp. Since,
however, the former Chief Of The German Reich Defence especially, General von Seeckt, not only did not put
up any resistance to the removal of hardened, deliberately national minded Officers, but rather even [himself]
advocated it, they themselves finally created the instrument which dropped him with a relatively light heart.
Since General von Seeckt's retirement, however, the democratic pacifistic influence has been tirelessly active in
order to make out of the Defence Force that which the present rulers of the State have in their minds as the most
beautiful ideal: a republican democratic parliamentary guard.
Obviously a foreign policy cannot be conducted with such an instrument.
Hence today the first task of German domestic policy ought to be that of giving the German Folk a military
organisation suitable to its national strength. Since the forms of the present Defence Force could never suffice
for this goal, and, conversely, are determined by foreign policy motives, it is the task of German foreign policy
to bring about all the possibilities that could permit the reorganisation of a German National Army. For that
must be the immovable aim of any political leadership in Germany, so that one day the mercenary Army will
again be replaced by a truly German National Army.
For just as the purely technical military qualities of the present are superior, so must the general qualities of the
German Defence Force deteriorate in their development in the future. The former without doubt is to be credited
to General von Seeckt and to the Defence Force's Officers' Corps altogether. Thus the German Defence Force
could really be the Army framework for the future German National Army. Just as, in general, the task of the
Defence Force itself must be, by the educational stress placed on the national fighting task, to train the mass of
Officers and Sergeants for the later National Army.
No true national thinking German can dispute that this aim must be held immovably in sight. Even less can he
dispute that its execution is possible only if the nation's foreign policy leaders assure the general necessary
Thus the first task of German foreign policy is primarily the creation of conditions which make possible the
resurrection of a German Army. For only then will our Folk's vital needs be able to find their practical
Fundamentally, however, it must be further observed that the political actions which are to guarantee the
resurrection of a German Army must lie in the framework of a necessary future development for Germany as
Hence there is no need to stress that a change of the present army organisation, wholly apart from the present
internal political situation as well as for reasons of foreign policy, cannot materialise as long as purely German
interests and German viewpoints alone speak for such a change.
It lay in the nature of the World War and in the intention of Germany's main enemies, to carry out the
liquidation of this greatest battle action of the Earth in such a way that as many States as possible would be
interested in its perpetuation. This was achieved through a system of distribution of territories, in which even
States with otherwise divergent desires and aims were held together in a solid antagonism by the fear that they
could in that case suffer losses through a Germany once more become strong.
For, if ten years after the World War it is still possible, against all the experience of world history, to maintain a
kind of coalition of the victor States, the reason lies only in the fact, glorious for Germany, of the recollection of
that struggle in which our Fatherland had stood up to twenty six States all together.
Thus it will also last as long as the fear of suffering losses through a resurrected German power Reich is greater
than the difficulties between these States. And it is further obvious that it will last as long as no will exists
anywhere to allow the German Folk a rearmament which can be viewed as a threat by these victor States. On
the basis of the knowledge that, first, a real representation of German vital interests in the future cannot take
place through an inadequate German Defence Force but rather only through a German National Army, that,
second, the formation of a German National Army is impossible for as long as the present foreign policy
strangulation of Germany does not slacken, third, that a change of foreign policy obstacles to the organisation of
a National Army appears possible only if such a new formation is not in general felt as a threat, the following
fact emerges with respect to a German foreign policy possible at this time:
Under no circumstances must presentday Germany see her foreign policy in terms of a formal border policy.
Once the principle of the restoration of the borders of the year 1914 is laid down as the set goal of foreign
policy, Germany will face a closed phalanx of her former enemies. Then any possibility is excluded of setting
up another Army which serves our interests more, as against the one whose definite form was determined by the
peace treaty. Hence the foreign policy slogan of restoration of the borders has become a mere phrase, because it
can never be realised for the lack of the necessary strength for this.
It is characteristic that precisely the so called German bourgeoisie, again headed by the patriotic leagues, has
made its way to this most stupid foreign policy aim. They know that Germany is powerless. They know further
that, wholly apart from our internal decline, military means would be required for the restoration of our borders,
and they know further that we do not possess these means as a result of the peace treaty, and also that we cannot
acquire them in consequence of the solid front of our enemies. But nevertheless they proclaim a foreign policy
slogan which precisely because of its essential character forever removes the possibility of achieving those
means of power which would be necessary in order to carry out the slogan.
This is what is called bourgeois statesmanship, and in its fruits that we see before us it exhibits the
incomparable spirit that dominates it.
The Prussia of that time required only seven years, from 1806 to 1813, for her resurgence. In the same time
bourgeois statesmanship, in union with Marxism, has led Germany up to Locarno. Which is a great success in
the eyes of the present bourgeois Bismarck, Herr Stresemann, because it offers the possible, which even the
above mentioned Herr Stresemann could achieve. And politics is the art of the possible. If Bismarck had ever
imagined that fate would have damned him to endorse with this utterance the statesmanlike qualities of Herr
Stresemann, he would have surely omitted the utterance, or in a very small note he would have denied Herr
Stresemann the right to refer to it.
Thus the slogan of the restoration of the German borders as an aim for the future is doubly stupid and
dangerous, because, in reality, it in no way encompasses any useful aim worth striving for.
The German borders of the year 1914 were borders which presented something incomplete in exactly the same
way as the borders of all nations are at all times incomplete. The territorial distribution of the world at any time
is the momentary result of a struggle and a development which by no means is concluded, but one which clearly
continues further. It is stupid to take the border of any sample year in a nation's history, and, offhand, to
represent it as a political aim. We can, of course, present the border of the year 1648, or that of 1312, and so on,
just as well as the border of the year 1914. This all the more so as indeed the border of the year 1914 was not
satisfactory in a national, military or geopolitical sense. It was only the momentary situation in our Folk's
struggle for existence which has been going on for centuries. And even if the World War had not occurred, this
struggle would not have had its end in 1914.
If the German Folk had in fact achieved the restoration of the borders of the year 1914, the sacrifices of the
World War would have been no less in vain. But also, there would not be the slightest gain for our Folk's future
in such a restoration. This purely formal border policy of our national bourgeoisie is just as unsatisfactory in its
possible end result as it is intolerably dangerous. Indeed it need not even be covered by the dictum of the art of
the possible, for this is, above all, only a theoretical phrase, which nevertheless seems suitable to destroy every
As a matter of fact, such a foreign policy aim also cannot stand up to a real critical examination. Hence attempts
are made to motivate it less on logical grounds than on grounds of national honour.
National honour requires that we restore the borders of the year 1914. This is the tenor of the discussions at the
beer evenings which the representatives of national honour hold on all sides.
First of all, national honour has nothing to do with the obligation to conduct a stupid and impossible foreign
policy. For the result of a bad foreign policy can be the loss of a Folk's freedom, whose consequence is slavery,
and which certainly cannot be viewed as a condition of national honour. To be sure a certain degree of national
dignity and honour can still be preserved under oppression, but then this is not a question of shouting or national
phrases, and so on, but, on the contrary, the expression which is to be found in the decorum with which a Folk
bears its fate.
Let there be no talk in presentday Germany, above all, of national honour, let no one try to make himself
conspicuous, as though one could preserve the national honour outwardly by any kind of rhetorical barking. No,
this cannot be done, and for the reason that it is no longer there. And by no means is it no longer there because
we lost the War, or because the French occupied Alsace-Lorraine, or the Poles stole Upper Silesia, or the
Italians took the Southern Tyrol. No, the national honour is no longer there because the German Folk, in the
most difficult time of its struggle for existence, exposed to the light of day a lack of character, an unabashed
servility, a dog like crawling fawning that can only be called shameless. For the reason that we subjected
ourselves miserably without being forced to do so, indeed because the leaders of this Folk, against eternal
historical truth and our own knowledge, themselves assumed the war guilt, and indeed burdened our whole Folk
with it, because there was no oppression by the enemy which would have not found thousands of creatures as
willing helpers among our Folk. Because, conversely, there were those who shamelessly reviled the time of the
great deeds of our Folk, spat upon the most glorious flag of all times, indeed defiled it with dirt, tore the
cockades from home coming soldiers before whom the world had trembled, pelted the flag with mud balls,
ripped off ribbons and badges of honour, and degraded a thousandfold even the memory of Germany's greatest
period. No enemy had so reviled the German Army as it was defiled by the representatives of the November
crime. No enemy had disputed the greatness of the Commanders of the German Army as much as they were
calumniated by the scoundrelly representatives of the new idea of government. And which was more certain
dishonour for our Folk: the occupation of German areas by the enemy, or the cowardice with which our
bourgeoisie surrendered the German Reich to an organisation of pimps, pickpockets, deserters, black marketeers
and hack journalists? Let not the gentlemen prattle now about German honour, as long as they bow under the
rule of dishonour. They have no right to want to conduct a foreign policy in the name of national honour, if the
domestic policy is one characterised by the most antinationalist shamelessness which has ever afflicted a great
Whoever wants to act in the name of German honour today must first launch a merciless war against the
infernal defilers of German honour. They are not the enemies of yore, but they are the representatives of the
November crime. That collection of Marxist, democratic pacifistic, destructive traitors of our country who
pushed our Folk into its present state of powerlessness.
To revile former enemies in the name of national honour and recognise the shameless allies of this enemy as the
rulers within their own country — that suits the national dignity of this presentday so called national bourgeoisie.
I frankly confess that I could reconcile myself to any of the former enemy, but that my hatred against the
betrayers of our own Folk in our ranks is and remains irreconcilable.
What the enemy inflicted on us is grievous and deeply humiliating to us, but the wrong committed by the men
of the November crime is the most dishonourable, the basest crime of all times. I am helping to make amends
for German honour by striving to bring about a situation in which these creatures will some day be called to
I must, however, reject the idea that any other grounds could be a standard for the ordering of foreign policy
save that of the responsibility of securing the freedom and the future of the life of our Folk.
The whole senselessness of the patriotic national bourgeois border policy shows itself on the basis of the
If the avowal of German as the mother tongue is used as a basis, the German nation numbers Folk.
Of this figure, millions are in the mother country.
In which Consequently, of all the Germans in the world, there are only millions within the present
Reich territory, who represent percent of the total number of our Folk altogether.
w w w . adolfhitler . ws
HOPELESSNESS OF AN ECONOMIC SOLUTION
Of the Germans not united with the motherland, in consequence of the slow loss of dedicated racial comrades,
the following must be regarded, that is, a total number of approximately million Germans find
themselves in a situation which, in all human probability, will one day cause their de-Germanisation. In no case,
however, will they be able to take further part in the motherland's fateful struggle in any kind of decisive form,
and just as little, too, in the cultural development of their Folk. Whatever the German element individually
accomplishes in North America, it will not be reckoned to the benefit of the German Folk as such, but adds to
the cultural aggregate of the American Union. Here the Germans are really only the cultural fertilisers for other
Folks. Indeed, in reality, the greatness of these nations is, in general, not seldom to be ascribed to the high
percentage of German contributions and accomplishments.
Once we keep the size of this constant loss of people in view, we will immediately be able to estimate the slight
importance of the border policy sponsored by the bourgeois world.
Even if a German foreign policy were to restore the borders of the year 1914, the percentage of Germans living
within the Reich territory, that is, belonging to our nation, would rise despite this only, from percent to
percent. Thus the possibility of enlarging this percentage considerably could hardly be in question any
If, notwithstanding, the German element abroad wants to remain true to the nation, this can at the outset be only
a question of a language and cultural loyalty, in that the more it rises to a consciously manifested feeling of
belongingness, the more does the motherland of the German nation honour the German name in the dignity of
Thus the more Germany as a Reich transmits a mark of the greatness of the German Folk to the world, the more
will the German element conclusively lost to the State receive a stimulus at least to take pride in belonging
spiritually to this Folk. On the other hand, the more wretchedly the motherland herself attends to her interests,
and accordingly transmits a bad impression abroad, the weaker will the inner inducement be felt to belong to
such a Folk.
Since the German Folk does not consist of Jews, the German element, especially in Anglosaxon countries,
nevertheless and unfortunately will increasingly be anglicised and presumably likewise be lost to our Folk,
spiritually and ideologically as well. Just as its practical work accomplishments are already lost to them.
Insofar, however, as it is a matter of the fate of those Germans who were broken off from the German Nation by
the events of the World War and the peace treaty, it must be said that their fate and future is a question of
regaining the motherland's political power.
Lost territories will not be retrieved by protest actions, but rather by a victorious sword. Thus, whoever today
desires the liberation of any territory whatsoever in the name of national honour must also be ready to stake all,
with iron and blood, for the liberation, otherwise such a chatterbox should keep his mouth shut. Along with this,
to be sure, follows the duty also of carefully considering whether we possess the power to carry out such a
struggle, and secondly whether the blood risked leads, or can lead, to the desired success, and thirdly, whether
the success achieved matches the blood that must be staked.
I most solemnly protest against the claim that a duty of national honour exists which compels us to have two
million men bleed to death on the battlefield in order that, under the most favourable result, we may be able to
enter a total of a quarter million men, women and children on our books. This is not national honour that is
made manifest here, but rather a lack of principle, or madness. It is no national honour, however, for a Folk to
be ruled by madmen.
Certainly a great Folk will protect even its last citizen with collective action. But it is an error to impute this to
sentiment to honour, rather than primarily to a sagacious insight and human experience. As long as a nation
tolerates an injustice that is inflicted on some of its citizens, it will slowly but increasingly weaken its own
position, since such a tolerance would serve the inner strengthening of an aggressive minded enemy just as it
grinds down trust in the strength of one's own State. We know all too well what the consequences are in history
of a constant yielding in little things, not to know how to be able to judge the necessary consequences in big
things. Hence a solicitous State leadership will all the more preferably attend to the interests of its citizens in the
smallest things, as with that the risk of its own commitment is reduced in proportion as that of the adversary
rises. If today in any State an injustice is committed against an English citizen, and England undertakes her
citizen's defence, the danger of England being involved in a war on account of this one Englishman is no greater
for England than for the other State, which inflicts the injustice. Hence the firm action of a government
respected as such in defence of even a single person is altogether not an unbearable risk, since indeed the other
State will have just as little interest in starting a war on account of a trifling injustice that may have been
inflicted on a single person. A general conception of honour has been formulated on the basis of this knowledge
and the thousand year old application of this principle, namely, that a powerful State take every individual
citizen under its protection and defend him with all its might.
Further, through the nature of European hegemony, a certain practice has been developed in the course of time
to demonstrate this conception of honour in more or less cheap examples, so as to raise the prestige of
individual European States, or at least to give it a certain stability. As soon as an alleged, or even faked,
injustice was committed against a Frenchman or an Englishman in certain countries that were weak and less
powerful militarily, this subject's defence with armed power was undertaken. That is to say, a couple of
warships put on a military demonstration, which in the worst cases was firing practice with live ammunition, or
an expeditionary force of some kind was landed with which the power to be punished was to be chastised. Not
seldom, at the same time, the wish that thus an excuse for intervention might be obtained, was father to the
It would probably never occur to the English even to exchange a note with North America on account of a
trifling incident for which they would take bloody revenge on Liberia.
Thus, the more the defence of the individual citizen is undertaken on grounds of pure expediency and with
every means in a strong State, the less can a Reich, made completely defenceless and powerless, be expected to
undertake a foreign policy step on the grounds of so called national honour, which perforce must lead, after all,
to the destruction of its last prospects for the future. For if the German Folk justifies its present border policy,
espoused in the so called national circles, by the necessity of representing German honour, the result will not be
the redemption of German honour, but rather the externalisation of German dishonour. That is to say, it is not at
all dishonourable to have lost territories, but it is dishonourable to conduct a policy which must needs lead to a
complete enslavement of one's own Folk. And all this only so as to be able to give vent to just ugly talk and to
avoid action. For this is just a question of empty talk. If we really wanted to establish a policy having national
honour as its goal, then we must at least entrust this policy to persons worthy of esteem according to all
common notions of honour. As long, however, as German domestic and foreign policy is conducted by forces
which, with cynical smirks, proclaim in the Reich Parliament that for them there exists no Fatherland called
Germany, for just so long will it be the first task of these national bourgeois and patriotic phrase mongering
heroes merely to secure the simplest recognition of the idea of national honour in Germany through their
domestic policy. But why do they not do it; indeed, on the contrary, why do they enter coalitions with avowed
betrayers of the country at the expense of this so called national honour? Because otherwise a difficult struggle
would be necessary, whose outcome they view with small confidence, and which, indeed, could lead to the
destruction of their own existence. To be sure, this private existence of theirs is holier than the defence of
national honour within the country. Yet they gladly risk the nation's future existence for a couple of phrases.
The national border policy becomes downright senseless if we look beyond both the afflictions and tasks of the
present to the necessity of shaping a life for our Folk in the future.
Hence the border policy of our bourgeois patriotic Fatherland circles is especially senseless because it requires
the greatest blood stakes, and yet contains the smallest prospects for our Folk's future.
The German Nation is less in a position today than in the years of peace to nourish itself on its own territory.
All the attempts — either through increasing land yields as such, or by cultivating the last fallow lands — to
bring about an increase of the German production of foodstuffs, did not enable our Folk to nourish itself from
its own soil. In fact, the Folk mass now living in Germany can no longer be satisfied with the yield of our soil.
Every further increase of these yields, however, would not be applied to the benefit of the increment to our
population, but instead would be completely spent in satisfying the increase of the general living requirements
of individuals. A model living standard is created here which is primarily determined by a knowledge of
conditions and of life in the American Union. Just as the living requirements of rural communities rise as a
result of the slow awareness and the influence of life in the big cities, so do the living requirements of entire
nations rise under the influence of the life of better situated and richer nations. Not seldom a people's living
standard, which thirty years before would have appeared as a maximum, is regarded as inadequate simply for
the reason that in the meanwhile knowledge has been acquired about the living standard of another Folk. Just as
in general, man, even in the lowest circles, takes for granted appointments which eighty years before were
unheard of luxuries even for the upper classes. The more space is bridged through modern technology, and
especially communication, and nations are brought closer together, the more intensive their mutual relations
become, the more also will living conditions reciprocally leave their mark on each other and seek to
approximate one another. It is an erroneous opinion that in the long run one can hold a Folk of a definite
cultural capacity and also of a real cultural importance to an otherwise generally valid living standard by an
appeal to perceptible facts or even to ideals. The broad masses especially will show no understanding of this.
They feel the hardship; either they grumble against those who in their opinion are responsible — something
which is dangerous at least in democratic States, since thereby they provide the reservoir for all attempts at
revolutionary upheavals — or through their own measures they try to bring about a rectification as they
understand it and as it arises from their own insight. The fight against the child begins. They want to lead a life
like others, and cannot. What is more natural than that the responsibility is put on large families, in which no
joy is taken any more, and which are limited as much as possible as a burdensome evil.
Hence it is false to believe that the German Folk in the future could acquire an increase in number by an
increase of its domestic agricultural production. In the most favourable of cases, the upshot is only a satisfaction
of the increased living requirements as such. But since the increase of these living requirements is dependent on
the living standard of other nations which, however, stand in a much more favourable relation of population to
land, they, in the future, too will be far ahead in their living equipment. Consequently this stimulus will never
die out, and one day either a discrepancy will arise between the living standard of these Folks and those poorly
provided with land, or the latter will be forced, or believe themselves forced, to reduce their number even
The German Folk's prospects are hopeless. Neither the present living space, nor that achieved by a restoration of
the borders of 1914, will allow us to lead a life analogous to that of the American Folk. If we want this, either
our Folk's territory must be considerably enlarged, or the German economy will again have to embark on paths
already known to us since the pre War period. Power is necessary in both cases. Specifically, first of all, in the
sense of a restoration of our Folk's inner strength, and then in a military mounting of this strength.
Presentday National Germany, which sees the fulfilment of the national task in its limited border policy, cannot
deceive herself that the problem of the nation's sustenance will in any way be solved thereby. For even the
utmost success of this policy of the restoration of the borders of 1914 would bring only a renewal of the
economic situation of the year 1914. In other words, the question of sustenance which then, as now, was
completely unsolved, will imperiously force us onto the tracks of world economy and world export. As a matter
of fact, the German bourgeoisie, and the so called national leagues with it, also think only in economic political
terms. Production, export and import are the catchwords with which they juggle and from which they hope for
the Nation's salvation in the future. It is hoped to raise the export capacity through an increase of production,
and thereby be able to provide adequately for import needs. Only it is completely forgotten that for Germany
this whole problem, as has already been stressed, is not at all a problem of increasing production, but rather a
question of sales possibility; and that the export difficulties would not at all be obviated by a reduction of
German production costs as, again, our bourgeois sly dogs presume. Because, inasmuch as this, in itself, is only
partly possible in consequence of our limited domestic market, making German export commodities able to
compete by lowering production costs — for instance, through the dismantling of our social legislation, and the
duties and burdens resulting therefrom — it will only bring us thither, where we had landed on August 4th, 1914.
It really is part of the whole incredible bourgeois national naivete to presume that England would or ever could
tolerate a German competition dangerous to her. Yet, these are the very same people who well know, and who
always stress, that Germany did not want a war in 1914, but that instead she was literally pushed into it. And
that it was England who, out of sheer competitive envy, gathered together former enemies and let loose against
Germany. Today, however, these incorrigible economic dreamers imagine that England, after having risked the
whole existence of her world empire in the monstrous four and one half year World War, and in which she
remained the victor, will now view German competition differently than at that time. As if for England this
whole question were a sporting matter. No. For decades before the War, England had tried to break the
threatening German economic competition, the growing German maritime trade, and so on, with economic
countermeasures. Only when they were forced to understand that this would not succeed, and when on the
contrary Germany, by building her Navy, showed that she was actually determined to carry out her economic
warfare to the extent of the peaceful conquest of the world, did England as a last resort invoke violence. And
now, after she has remained the victor, they think they can play the game all over again; whereas, on top of all
this, Germany today is not at all in a position to throw any kind of power factor into the scales, thanks indeed to
her domestic and foreign policy.
The attempt to restore our Folk's sustenance and to be able to maintain it by the increase of our production and
by reducing the costs of the same, ultimately will fail for the reason that we cannot undertake the final
consequence of this struggle because of the lack of military power. Thus the end would be a collapse of the
German Folk's sustenance and of all these hopes along with it. Entirely aside from the fact, too, that now even
the American Union is emerging in all fields as the sharpest competitor to all European nations fighting as
export nations for the world's markets. The size and the wealth of her domestic market permits production
figures and thereby production equipment which so reduce manufacturing costs that, despite enormous wages, it
no longer seems possible to undercut her prices. Here the development of the automobile industry may be
considered as a warning example. Not only because we Germans, for instance, despite our laughable wages, are
not in a position, even only to a degree, to export successfully against American competition, but we must also
look on as American cars spread alarmingly even to our own country. This is possible only because the size of
her domestic market, her wealth in purchasing power and also in raw materials, guarantees the American
automobile industry domestic sales figures which alone make possible manufacturing methods which in Europe
would be impossible in consequence of the lack of these domestic sales potentials. The consequence of this is
the enormous export possibilities of the American automobile industry. Thus here it is a question of the general
motorising of the world that is a matter of incommensurable importance for the future. For the replacement of
human and animal power by motors is only at the beginning of its development, whose end cannot at all be
foreseen today. At any rate, for the American Union, the modern automobile industry is on the whole at the
forefront of all other industries.
Thus in many other areas, our continent will increasingly appear as an economic factor, in an aggressive form,
and thereby help to sharpen the struggle for the sales market. From an examination of all factors, especially in
view of the limitation of our own raw materials and the ensuing threatening dependence on other countries,
Germany's future perforce appears very gloomy and sad.
But even if Germany were to master all her increasing economic difficulties, she would still be in the same spot
as she had already been on August 4th, 1914. The ultimate decision as to the outcome of the struggle for the
world market will lie in power, and not in economics.
It has been our curse, however, that even in peacetime a great part of the national bourgeoisie, precisely, was
permeated by the idea that power could be renounced through an economic policy. Today, its chief
representatives are also to be sought in those more or less pacifistic circles who, as the adversaries and enemies
of all heroic, Folkish virtues, would be glad to see a Statepreserving, indeed even a Stateforming, strength in
economics. But the more a Folk accepts the belief that it can maintain its life only through peaceful economic
activity, the more will its very economy be surrendered to collapse. For, ultimately, economics, as a purely
secondary matter in national life, is linked to the primary existence of a strong State. The sword had to stand
before the plough, and an Army before economics.
If it is believed that we can renounce this in Germany, our Folk's sustenance will be wrecked.
As soon, however, as a Folk in general once impregnates its life with the thought that it can find its daily
subsistence through peaceful economic activity alone, the less will it think of a violent solution in case this
attempt should fail; on the contrary, it will then all the more try to take the easiest path to overcome the
miscarriage of the economy without thereby having to risk its blood. As a matter of fact, Germany already finds
herself in the middle of this situation. Emigration and birth control are the medicines recommended for our
nation's salvation by the representatives of pacifistic economic policy and the Marxist view of the State.
The result of following these counsels, especially for Germany, will be of the most fateful importance. Germany
is racially composed of so many unequal constituent elements that a permanent emigration perforce will remove
from our Nation people who have the greatest capacity for resistance, who are the boldest and most determined.
These, above all, like the Vikings of yore, will also today be the bearers of Nordic blood. This slow diminution
of the Nordic element leads to a lowering of our general race value and thus to a weakening of our technical,
cultural, and also civic political productive forces. Hence, the consequences of this weakening will be especially
grievous for the future, because there now appears as a dynamic actor in world history a new State, which, as a
truly European colony, has for centuries received the best Nordic forces of Europe by way of emigration; aided
by the community of their original blood, these have built a new, fresh community of the highest racial value. It
is no accident that the American Union is the State in which at the present time most inventions are being made
by far, some of which are of an incredible boldness. Americans, as a young, racially select Folk, confront Old
Europe, which has continually lost much of its best blood through war and emigration. Just as little as one can
equate the accomplishment of one thousand degenerate Levantines in Europe, say in Crete, with the
accomplishment of one thousand racially still more valuable Germans or Englishmen, so can one just as little
equate the accomplishment of one thousand racially questionable Europeans to the capacity of one thousand
racially highly valuable Americans. Only a conscious Folkish race policy would be able to save European
nations from losing the law of action to America, in consequence of the inferior value of European Folks vis-a-
vis the American Folk. If in place of this, however, the German Folk, along with a bastardisation systematically
conducted by Jews with inferior human material and a lowering of its racial value as such caused thereby, also
lets its best bloodbearers be taken away by a continuation of emigration in hundreds upon hundreds of
thousands of individual specimens, it will slowly sink to the level of an equally inferior race, and hence to that
of an incompetent and valueless Folk. The danger is especially great since, because of the complete indifference
on our side, the American Union itself, inspired by the teachings of its own ethnologists, has established special
standards for immigration. By making entry to American soil dependent on definite racial prerequisites on the
one hand, as well as on the definite physical health of the individual as such, bleeding Europe of its best people
has, indeed, perforce been legally regulated. This is something which our whole so called national bourgeois
world and all its economic politicians either do not see, or, at least, will not hear of because it is unpleasant to
them, and because it is much cheaper to pass over these things with a couple of general national phrases.
To this lowering, imposed by Nature, of the general value of our Folk by forced emigration in consequence of
our economic policy, is added birth control as a second disadvantage. I have already set forth the consequences
of the fight against the child. They lie in a reduction of the count of individuals brought to life, so that a further
selection cannot take place. On the contrary, people take pains that all who are once born are kept alive under
any circumstances. Since, however, ability, energy, and so on, are not necessarily connected with the first born,
but instead become visible in each case only in the course of the struggle for existence, the possibility of a
weeding out and a selection according to such criteria is removed. Nations become impoverished in talents and
energies. Again, this is especially bad in nations in which the dissimilarity of basic racial elements extends even
into families. For then, according to the Mendelian Law Of Division, a separation takes place in every family
which can partly be attributed to one racial side, partly to the other. If, however, these racial values vary in their
importance for a Folk, then even the value of the children of one family already will be dissimilar on racial
grounds. Since the firstborn in no way must grow according to the racially valuable sides of both parents, it lies
in the interest of a nation that later life at least search out the more racially valuable from among the total
number of children, through the struggle for existence, and preserve them for the nation and, conversely, put the
nation in the possession of the accomplishments of these racially valuable individuals. But if man himself
prevents the procreation of a greater number of children and limits himself to the firstborn or at least to the
secondborn, he will nevertheless want to preserve especially these inferior racial elements of the nation, even if
these do not possess the most valuable characteristics. Thus he artificially hinders nature's process of selection,
he prevents it, and thereby helps to impoverish a nation of powerful personalities. He destroys the peak value of
The German Folk which, as such, does not have that average value, as for example the English, will be
especially dependent on personality values. The extraordinary extremes that we can observe everywhere in our
Folk are only the after effects of our disruption, determined by blood, into superior and inferior racial elements.
In general, the Englishman will have a better average. Perhaps he will never arrive at the harmful depths of our
Folk, but also never at its heights of brilliance. Therefore, his life will move along a more average line and be
filled with a greater steadiness. In contrast, German life in everything is infinitely unstable and restless and
acquires its importance only by its extraordinarily high achievements, through which we make amends for the
disquieting aspects of our Nation. Once, however, the personal bearers of these high achievements are removed
through an artificial system, these very achievements cease. Then our Folk moves toward a permanent
pauperisation of personality values, and thereby to a lowering of its whole cultural and spiritual importance.
If this condition should continue for just several hundred years, our German Folk would be, at the least, so
weakened in its general importance that it would no longer be able to raise any kind of claim to be called a Folk
of world consequence. In any case, it will no longer be in a position to keep pace with the deeds of the
considerably younger, healthier American Folk. Then, because of a great number of causes, we ourselves will
experience what not a few old cultural Folks prove in their historical development. Through their vices, and in
consequence of their thoughtlessness, the Nordic bloodbearer was slowly eliminated as the most racially
valuable element of the bearers of culture and founders of States, and thereby they left behind a human
hodgepodge of such slight intrinsic importance that the law of action was wrested from their hands to pass over
to other younger and healthier Folks.
All of south eastern Europe, especially the still older cultures of Asia Minor and Persia, as well as those of the
Mesopotamian lowlands, provide classroom examples of the course of this process.
Thus, just as here history was slowly shaped by the racially more valuable Folks of the Occident, the danger
likewise arises that the importance of racially inferior Europe slowly is leading to a new determination of the
world's fate by the Folk of the North American continent.
That this danger threatens all Europe has, after all, already been perceived by some today. Only few of them
wish to understand what it means for Germany. Our Folk, if it lives with the same political thoughtlessness in
the future as in the past, will have to renounce its claim to world importance once and for all. Racially, it will
increasingly atrophy until it finally sinks to degenerate, animallike feed bags lacking as well the memory of past
greatness. As a State in the future order of World States, they will at best be like that which Switzerland and
Holland have been in Europe up to now.
This will be the end of the life of a Folk whose history has been two thousand years of world history.
This fate will no longer be changed with stupid national bourgeois phrases whose practical senselessness and
worthlessness must already have been proved by the success of development up to now. Only a new
reformation movement, which sets a conscious knowledge against racial thoughtlessness and draws all the
conclusions from this knowledge, can still snatch our Folk back from this abyss.
It will be the task of the National Socialist Movement to carry over into a policy applied in practice the
knowledge and scientific insights of race theory, either already existing or in the course of development, as well
as the world history clarified through it.
Since today Germany's economic fate vis-a-vis America is in fact also the fate of other nations in Europe, there
is again a movement of credulous followers, especially among our Folk, who want to oppose a European union
to the American Union in order thereby to prevent a threatening world hegemony of the North American
For these people, the Pan European Movement, at least at first sight, really seems to have much that is alluring
about it. Indeed, if we could judge world history according to economic viewpoints, it could even be pertinent.
Two are always more than one for the mechanic of history, and thus for the mechanical politician. But values,
not numbers, are decisive in the life of nations. That the American Union was able to achieve such a threatening
height is not based on the fact that million people form a State there, but on the fact that square
kilometres of the most fertile and the richest soil is inhabited by million people of the highest race value.
That these people form a State has a heightened importance for the other parts of the world, despite the
territorial size of their living area, insofar as an organisation, all encompassing, exists thanks to which, indeed,
the racially conditioned individual value of these people, can find a compact deployment of collective forces for
fighting through the struggle for existence.
If this were not correct, if the importance of the American Union thus lay in the size of the population alone, or
else in the size of the territory, or in the relation in which this territory stands to the size of the population, then
Russia would be at least as dangerous for Europe. Presentday Russia encompasses million people on
million square kilometres. These people are also comprised in a State structure whose value, taken
traditionally, would have to be even higher than that of the American Union. Despite this, however, it would
never occur to anybody to fear a Russian hegemony over the world for this reason. No such inner value is
attached to the number of the Russian people, so that this number could become a danger for the freedom of the
world. At least never in the sense of an economic and power political rule of the other parts of the globe, but at
best in the sense of an inundation of disease bacilli which at the moment have their focus in Russia.
If, however, the importance of the threatening American position of hegemony seems to be conditioned
primarily by the value of the American Folk, and then only secondarily by the size of this Folk's given living
space and the favourable relation between population and soil resulting therefrom, this hegemony will not be
eliminated by a purely formal numerical unification of European nations, so far as their inner value is not higher
than that of the American Union. Otherwise, present day Russia would necessarily appear as the greatest danger
to this American Union, as would China, still more, which is inhabited by over 400 million people.
Thus, first and foremost, the Pan European Movement rests on the fundamental basic error that human values
can be replaced by human numbers. This is a purely mechanical conception of history which avoids an
investigation of all shaping forces of life, in order, in their stead, to see in numerical majorities the creative
sources of human culture as well as the formative factors of history. This conception is in keeping with the
senselessness of our western democracy as with the cowardly pacifism of our high economic circles. It is
obvious that it is the ideal of all inferior or half breed bastards. Likewise, that the Jew especially welcomes such
a conception. For, logically pursued, it leads to racial chaos and confusion, to a bastardisation and Negrification
of cultural mankind, and thereby ultimately to such a lowering of its racial value that the Hebrew who has kept
free of this can slowly rise to world domination. At least, he fancies that ultimately he will be able to develop
into the brain of this mankind which has become worthless.
Aside from this fundamental basic error of the Pan European Movement, even the idea of a unification of
European States, forced by a general insight emerging from a threatened distress, is a fantastic, historically
impossible childishness. Thereby, I do not mean to say that such a unification under a Jewish protectorate and
Jewish impulsion as such would not be possible from the outset, but only that the result could not match the
hopes for which the whole monkey business sets the stage. Let no one believe that such a European coalition
could mobilise any strength that would manifest itself externally. It is an old experience that a lasting
unification of nations can take place only if it is a question of nations which are racially equivalent and related
as such, and if, secondly, their unification takes place in the form of a slow process of struggle for hegemony.
Thus did Rome once subjugate the Latin States one after the other, until finally her strength sufficed to become
the crystallisation point of a world empire. But this is likewise the history of the birth of the English World
Empire. Thus, further, did Prussia put an end to the dismemberment of Germany, and thus only in this way
could a Europe one day rise that could attend to the interests of its population in a compact governmental form.
But — this would only be the result of a centuries long struggle, since an infinite quantity of old customs and
traditions must be overcome and an assimilation of Folks who are already extraordinarily divergent racially
would have to materialise. The difficulty, then, of giving a unitary State language to such a structure can
likewise be solved only in a centuries long process.
However all this would not be the realisation of the present Pan European train of thought, but rather the
success of the struggle for existence of the strongest nations of Europe. And what remained would as little be a
Pan Europe as, for instance, the unification of the Latin States formerly was a Pan Latinisation. The power
which at that time had fought through this unification process in centuries long battles gave its name forever to
the whole structure. And the power which would create a Pan Europe along such natural ways would thereby at
the same time rob it of the designation Pan Europe.
But even in such a case, the desired success would not materialise. For once any European great power today ~
and naturally it could involve only a power which was valuable according to its Folkdom, that is, racially
important — brings Europe to unity along these lines, the final completion of this unity would signify the racial
submersion of its founders, and thereby remove even the last value from the whole structure. It would never be
possible thereby to create a structure which could bear up against the American Union.
In the future only the State which has understood how to raise the value of its Folkdom and to bring it to the
most expedient State form for this, through its inner life as well as through its foreign policy, will be able to
face up to North America. By posing such a solution as possible, a whole number of States will be able to
participate, which can and will lead to a heightened fitness if for no other reason than the mutual competition.
It is again the task of the National Socialist Movement to strengthen and to prepare to the utmost its own
Fatherland itself for this task.
The attempt, however, to realise the Pan European idea through a purely formal unification of European
nations, without having to be forced in centuries long struggles by a European ruling power, would lead to a
structure whose whole strength and energy would be absorbed by the inner rivalries and disputes exactly as
formerly the strength of the German clans in the German Union. Only when the internal German question had
been finally solved through Prussia's power superiority could a commitment of the Nation's united strength
beyond its borders ensue. It is frivolous, however, to believe that the contest between Europe and America will
always be only of a peaceful economic nature, if economic motives develop into determining vital factors. In
general, it lay in the nature of the rise of the North American State that at first it could exhibit little interest in
foreign policy problems. Not only in consequence of the lack of a long governmental tradition, but rather
simply in consequence of the fact that within the American continent itself extraordinarily large areas stood at
the disposal of man's natural urge for expansion. Hence, the policy of the American Union, from the moment of
breaking away from the European mother State to most recent times, was primarily a domestic one. Indeed, the
struggles for freedom were themselves at bottom nothing but the shaking off of foreign policy commitments in
favour of a life viewed exclusively in terms of domestic policy. In proportion as the American Folk increasingly
fulfil the tasks of internal colonisation, the natural, activist urge that is peculiar to young nations will turn
outward. But then the surprises which the world may perchance still experience could least of all be seriously
opposed by a pacifistic democratic Pan European hodgepodge State. According to the conception of that
everybody's bastard, Coudenhove, this Pan Europe would one day play the same role vis-a-vis the American
Union, or a nationally awakened China that was formerly played by the old Austrian State vis-a-vis Germany or
Really, there is no need to refute the opinion that just because a fusion of Folks of different nationalities has
taken place in the American Union, this must also be possible in Europe. The American Union, to be sure, has
brought people of different nationalities together into a young nation. But closer scrutiny discloses that the
overwhelming majority of these different ethnic groups racially belong to similar or at least related basic
elements. For since the emigration process in Europe was a selection of the fittest, this fitness in all European
Folks lying primarily in the Nordic admixture, the American Union, in fact, has drawn to itself the scattered
Nordic elements from among Folks who were very different as such. If, in addition, we take into account that it
involved people who were not the bearers of any kind of theory of government, and consequently were not
burdened by any kind of tradition, and, further, the dimensions of the impact of the new world to which all
people are more or less subject, it becomes understandable why a new nation, made up of peoples from all
European countries, could arise in less than two hundred years. It must be considered, however, that already in
the last century this fusion process became more difficult in proportion as, under the pressure of need,
Europeans went to North America, who, as members of European national States, not only felt themselves
united with them Folkishly for the future, but who particularly prized their national tradition more highly than
citizenship in their new homeland. Moreover, even the American Union has not been able to fuse people of
alien blood who are stamped with their own national feeling or race instinct. The American Union's power of
assimilation has failed vis-a-vis the Chinese as well as vis-a-vis the Japanese element. They also sense this well
and know it, and therefore they would best prefer to exclude these alien bodies from immigration. But thereby
American immigration policy itself confirms that the earlier fusion presupposed peoples of definite equal race
foundations, and immediately miscarried as soon as it involved people who were fundamentally different. That
the American Union itself feels itself to be a Nordic German State, and in no way an international mishmash of
Folks, further emerges from the manner in which it allots immigration quotas to European nations.
Scandinavians, that is, Swedes, Norwegians, further Danes, then Englishmen, and finally Germans, are allotted
the greatest contingents. Rumanians and Slavs very little, Japanese and Chinese they would prefer to exclude
altogether. Consequently, it is a Utopia to oppose a European coalition or a Pan Europe, consisting of Mongols,
Slavs, Germans, Latins, and so on, in which all others than Teutons would dominate, as a factor capable of
resistance, to this racially dominant, Nordic State. A very dangerous Utopia, to be sure, if we consider that
again countless Germans see a rosy future for which they will not have to make the most grievous sacrifices.
That this Utopia of all things came out of Austria is not without a certain comedy. For, after all, this State and
its fate is the liveliest example of the enormous strength of structures artificially glued together but which are
unnatural in themselves. It is the rootless spirit of the old imperial city of Vienna, that hybrid city of the Orient
and the Occident, which thereby speaks to us.
w w w . adolfhitler . ws
ON NECESSITY FOR AN ACTIVE FOREIGN POLICY
Summing up, therefore, it can be reiterated that our bourgeois national policy, the foreign policy aim of which is
the restoration of the borders of the year 1914, is senseless and indeed catastrophic. It perforce brings us into
conflict with all the States which took part in the World War. Thus it guarantees the continuance of the coalition
of victors which is slowly choking us. It thereby always assures France a favourable official opinion in other
parts of the world for her eternal proceedings against Germany. Even were it successful, it would signify nothing
at all for Germany's future in its results, and nevertheless compel us to fight with blood and steel. Further, it
altogether prevents in particular any stability of German foreign policy.
It was characteristic of our pre War policy that it necessarily gave an outside observer the image of decisions
often as wavering as they were incomprehensible. If we disregard the Triple Alliance, the maintenance of which
could not be a foreign policy aim but only a means to such an aim, we can discover no stable idea in the leaders
of our Folk's fate in the pre War period. This is naturally incomprehensible. The moment the foreign policy aim
no longer signified a struggle for the German Folk's interests, but rather the preservation of world peace, we lost
the ground under our feet. I can certainly outline a Folk's interests, establish them, and, regardless of how the
possibilities of their advocacy stand, I can nevertheless keep the great aim uninterruptedly in view. Gradually the
rest of mankind will also acquire a general knowledge of a nation's special, definite, chief foreign policy ideas.
This then offers the possibility of regulating mutual relations in a permanent way, either in the sense of an
intended resistance against the known operation of such a power, or a reasonable awareness of it, or also in the
sense of an understanding, since, perhaps, one's own interests can be achieved along a common path.
This stability in foreign policy can be established with a whole series of European States. For long periods of her
existence, Russia exhibited definite foreign policy aims which dominated her whole activity. In the course of the
centuries, France has always represented the same foreign policy aims regardless who embodied political power
in Paris at the moment. We may speak of England not only as a State with a traditional diplomacy, but above all
as a State with a foreign policy idea become a tradition. With Germany, such an idea could be discerned only
periodically in the Prussian State. We see Prussia fulfil her German mission in the short period of the
Bismarckian statecraft, but thereafter any foreign policy aim staked out far in advance came to an end. The new
German Reich, especially after Bismarck's retirement, no longer had such an aim since the slogan of preserving
peace, that is, of maintaining a given situation, does not possess any kind of stable content or character. Just as
any passive slogan is doomed in reality to be the plaything of an aggressive will. Only he who himself wants to
act can also determine his action according to his will. Hence the Triple Entente, which wanted to act, also had
all the advantages which lie in the self determination of action, whereas the Triple Alliance through its
contemplative tendency to preserve world peace was at a disadvantage to the same degree. Thus the timing and
opening of a war was established by nations with a definite foreign policy aim, whereas, conversely, the Triple
Alliance powers were surprised by it at an hour that was everything but favourable. If we in Germany ourselves
had had even the slightest bellicose intention, it would have been possible through a number of measures, which
could have been carried out without effort, to have given another face to the start of the War. But Germany never
had a definite foreign policy aim in view, she never thought of any kind of aggressive steps for the realisation of
this aim, and consequently events caught her by surprise.
From Austria-Hungary we could hope for no other foreign policy aim as such, save that of wriggling through the
hazards of European politics, so that the rotten State structure as much as possible nowhere bumps into anything,
in order thus to conceal from the world the real inner character of this monstrous corpse of a State.
The German national bourgeoisie, which alone is under discussion here — since international Marxism as such
has no other aim but Germany's destruction — even today has learned nothing from the past. Even today it does
not feel the necessity of setting for the nation a foreign policy aim that may be regarded as satisfactory, and
thereby give our foreign policy endeavours a certain stability for a more or less long time. For only if such a
possible foreign policy goal appears fundamentally staked out can we discuss in detail the possibilities that can
lead to success. Only then does politics enter the stage of the art of the possible. As long, however, as this whole
political life is not dominated by any leading idea, individual actions will not have the character of utilising all
possibilities for the achievement of a certain success as such. Instead, they are but individual stations along the
way of an aimless and planless muddling through from today to tomorrow. Above all is lost that certain
persistence which the execution of great aims always requires; that is: one will try this today and that tomorrow,
and the day after one will have this foreign policy possibility in view, and suddenly pay homage to a wholly
opposite intention — insofar, that is, as this visible confusion as confusion is not actually in keeping with the
wish of that power which rules Germany today, and in truth does not wish for a resurgence of our Folk ever.
Only international Jewry can possess a lively interest in a German foreign policy which by its continual,
seemingly irrational, sudden transitions, lacks that clear plan, and which, as its only justification, at best asserts:
Indeed, we too naturally don't know what should be done, but we do something precisely because something
must be done. Yes, not seldom can we actually hear that these men are so little convinced of the inner sense of
their foreign policy actions that, as highest motivation, they can only inquire whether somebody else may know
a better one. This is the foundation on which the statecraft of a Gustav Stresemann rests.
In contrast, precisely today more than ever is it necessary for the German Folk to set itself a foreign policy goal
which meets its real inner needs and, conversely, guarantees an unconditional stability to its foreign policy
activity for the humanly predictable proximate period of time. For only if our Folk fundamentally determines
and persistently fights for its interests in such a way, can it hope to induce this or that State whose interests are
not opposed to ours, now at last established, and which indeed may even be parallel, to enter into a closer union
with Germany. For the idea of wanting to solve our Folk's distress through the League Of Nations is exactly as
unjustified as it was to let the German question be decided by the Frankfurt Federal Parliament.
The satisfied nations dominate the League Of Nations. Indeed, it is their instrument. To a large measure they
have no interest in allowing a change in the territorial distribution of the globe, unless it again appeals to their
interests. And while they talk about the rights of small nations, in reality it is only the interests of the largest they
have in view.
If Germany again wants to achieve a real freedom so that, under its blessing, she can give the German Folk its
daily bread, she must take the measures thereto outside the Parliament Of The League Of Nations in Geneva. But
then, for the lack of sufficient strength, it will be necessary that she find allies who can believe that they may
also serve their own interests by going along with Germany. Such a situation, however, will never arise if
Germany's real foreign policy aim has not become fully clear to these nations. And, above all, Germany by
herself will never acquire the strength and inner force for that persistence necessary, alas, to sweep away the
obstacles of world history. For then one will never learn how to have patience in particulars, and also to
renounce them if necessary, in order finally to be able to achieve the vitally necessary aim on a large scale. For
even among allies, relations will never be completely frictionless. Disturbances of reciprocal relations can arise
over and over again to assume threateningly dangerous forms if the strength to overcome these petty
unpleasantnesses and obstacles does not lie in the very dimensions of the foreign policy aim ultimately staked
out. Here the French national leadership of the pre War decades may serve as an exemplary model. How it
lightly passed over small matters, indeed, even remained silent before the most bitter events, so as not to lose the
possibility of organising a war of revenge against Germany, in such contrast to our eternally bawling hurrah!-
patriots, and, consequently, their frequent barking at the moon.
The staking out of a clear foreign policy aim appears as important, furthermore, for the reason that, otherwise,
the representatives of other interests among one's own Folk will always find it possible to confuse public
opinion, and to make, and in part even provoke, petty incidents into a cause for the radical change of opinion on
foreign policy. Thus, out of the petty disputes which result from conditions themselves or which are artificially
fabricated, France will again and again try to bring about ill feeling, indeed estrangement, among nations which,
by the whole nature of their real vital interests, would be dependent upon each other, and which perforce would
have to take a stand against France in concert. Such attempts, however, will be successful only if in consequence
of the lack of an unshakeable political aim, one's own political actions do not possess a true stability, and above
all, because persistence in the preparation of measures serviceable to the fulfilment of one's own political aim is
The German Folk, which possesses neither a foreign policy tradition nor a foreign policy aim, will by itself
rather be inclined to pay homage to Utopian ideals, and thereby neglect its real vital interest. For what has our
Folk not raved over in the last hundred years? Now it was Greeks whom we wanted to save from the Turks, then
Turks on whom we bestowed our affection against Russians and Italians, after which our Folk again found an
enchantment in waxing enthusiastic over Polish freedom fighters, and then in indulging their feelings for the
Boers, and so on. But what have all these most stupid soulful gushings, as incompetent politically as they were
garrulous, cost our Folk?
Thus the relation to Austria, as was emphasised with special pride, was not one of practical understanding, but a
true inner alliance of the heart. If only reason instead of the heart had spoken at this time, and understanding had
decided, Germany would be saved today. But for the very reason that we are the kind of a Folk which lets its
political actions be determined too little according to the grounds of a really reasonable, rational insight — for
which reason we cannot look back on any great political tradition — we must, at least for the future, give our
Folk an unshakeable foreign policy aim which seems suitable for making the political measures of the State
leadership understandable to the broad masses in their particulars. Only thus will it be ultimately possible that
millions with a divining faith will stand behind a government leadership which carries out decisions which in
their particulars may have something painful about them. This is a prerequisite for bringing about a mutual
understanding between the Folk and the State leadership and, to be sure, also a prerequisite for anchoring the
State leadership itself in a certain tradition. It will not do that every German government have its own foreign
policy goal. One can quarrel only over the means, one can dispute over them, but the goal itself must be
established as unchangeable once and for all. Then politics can become the great art of the possible, that is, it is
reserved to the brilliant abilities of the individual government leaders to perceive the possibilities, from instance
to instance, of bringing the Folk and the Reich nearer to its foreign policy aim
This setting of a foreign policy goal is altogether non existent in presentday Germany. Hence the unguided,
wavering and unsure manner of attending to our Folk's interests becomes understandable, as does also the whole
confusion of our public opinion. Hence also the incredible capers of our foreign policy which always end
unhappily without the Folk being even at least capable of judging the persons responsible and really calling them
to account. No, one does not know what to do.
To be sure there are not a few people today who fully believe we should do nothing. They boil down their
opinion to the effect that Germany today must be clever and reserved, that she engage herself nowhere, that we
must keep the development of events well in view but ourselves not take part in them, in order, one day, to
assume the role of the laughing third one, who reaps the benefits, while the other two quarrel.
Yes, yes, our present bourgeois statesmen are so clever and wise. A political judgement which is troubled by no
knowledge of history. There are not a few proverbs which have become a real curse for our Folk. For example,
the wiser one yields, or clothes make the man, or one can get through the whole land with hat in hand, or when
two fight, the third rejoices.
In the life of nations, at least, the last proverb applies only in a wholly conditional sense. [And this for the
following reason] Namely, if two quarrel hopelessly within a nation, then a third who is outside a nation can
win. In the life of nations with one another, however, the ultimate success will be had by States which
deliberately engage in disputes because the possibility of increasing their strength lies only in a quarrel. There is
no historical event in the world that cannot be judged from two points of view. The neutrals on one side always
confront the interventionist on the other. And, in general, the neutrals will always get the worst of it, whereas the
interventionists rather can claim the benefits for themselves, insofar, indeed, as the party on which they wagered
does not lose.
In the life of nations this means the following: If two mighty powers quarrel on this globe, the more or less small
or large surrounding States either can take part in this struggle, or keep their distance from it. In one case the
possibility of a gain is not excluded, insofar as the participation takes place on the side which carries off the
victory. Regardless who wins, however, the neutrals will have no other fate save enmity with the remaining
victor State. Up to now none of the globe's great States has arisen on the basis of neutrality as a principle of
political action, but only through struggle. If towering power States as such are on Earth, all that remains for
small States to do is either to renounce their future altogether, or to fight with the more favourable coalition and
under its protection, and thus increase their own strength. For the role of the laughing third always presupposes
that this third already has a power. But whoever is always neutral will never achieve power. For to the extent that
a Folk's power lies in its inner value, the more does it find its ultimate expression in the organisational form of a
Folk's fighting forces on the battlefield, created by the will of this inner value. This form, however, will never
rise if it is not put to the test from time to time. Only under the forge hammer of world history do a Folk's eternal
values become the steel and iron with which history is made. But he who avoids battles will never attain the
strength to fight battles. And he who never fights battles will never be the heir of those who struggle with each
other in a military conflict. For the previous heirs of world history were not, for instance, Folks with cowardly
concepts of neutrality, but young Folks with better swords. Neither Antiquity nor the Middle Ages nor modern
times knows even a single example of any power States coming into being save in permanent struggle. Up to
now, however, the historical heirs have always been power States. In the life of nations, to be sure, even a third
can be the heir when two quarrel. But then from the very outset this third is already the power which deliberately
lets two other powers quarrel in order to defeat them once and for all later without a great sacrifice on its part.
Thereby neutrality loses the character of passive non participation in events altogether, and instead assumes that
of a conscious political operation. Obviously no sagacious State leadership will begin a struggle without
weighing the size of its possible stakes and comparing it with the size of the adversary's stakes. But if it has
perceived the impossibility of being able to fight against a certain powers, all the more so will it be forced to try
to fight together with this power. For then the strength of the hitherto weaker power can eventually grow out of
this common struggle, in order if necessary to fight for is own vital interests also against the latter. Let no one
say that then no power would enter into an alliance with a State which some day itself might become a danger.
Alliances do not present policy aims, but only means to the aims. We must make use of them today even if we
know a hundred times that the later development can possibly lead to the opposite. There is no alliance that lasts
forever. Happy the nations which, in consequence of the complete divergence of their interests, can enter into an
alliance relationship for a definite time without being forced to a mutual conflict after the cessation of the same.
But a weak State especially, which wants to achieve power and greatness, must always try to take an active part
in the general political events of world history.
When Prussia entered her Silesian War, this too was a relatively secondary phenomenon alongside the violent
dispute between England and France, which at that time was already in full swing. Perhaps Frederick The Great
can be reproached for having pulled English chestnuts out of the fire. But would the Prussia ever have arisen
with which a Bismarck could create a new Reich, if at that time a Hohenzollern prince had sat on the throne
who, in the knowledge of the future greater evens of world history, preserved his Prussia in a State of pious
neutrality? The three Silesian Wars brought Prussia more than Silesia. On these battlefields grew those
Regiments which in the future were to carry the German banners from Weissenburg and Worth up to Sedan, in
order finally to greet the new emperor of the new Reich in the Hall Of Mirrors in the Palace Of Versailles.
Prussia at that time was certainly a small State, unimportant in population and territorial size. But by leaping into
the middle of the great actions of world history, this little State had obtained for itself a legitimisation for the
founding of the later German Reich.
And once, even the neutralists triumphed in the Prussian State. This was in the period of Napoleon I. At that time
it was believed at first that Prussia could remain neutral, and for this she was later punished with the most
terrible defeat. Both conceptions confronted one another sharply even in the year 1812. The one for neutrality,
and the other, headed by Baron vom Stein, for intervention. The fact that the neutralists won out in 1812 cost
Prussia and Germany infinite blood and brought them infinite suffering. And the fact that at last in 1813 the
interventionists broke through saved Prussia.
The World War gave the clearest answer to the opinion that one can achieve political success by preserving a
careful neutrality as a third power. What have the neutrals of the World War achieved practically? Were they the
laughing third one, for instance? Or does one believe that, in a similar event, Germany would play another role?
And let no one think that the reason for this lies only in the magnitude of the World War. No, in the future, all
wars, insofar as they involve great nations, will be Folk's wars of the most gigantic dimensions. As a neutral
State in any other European conflict, Germany, however, would possess no more importance than Holland or
Switzerland or Denmark, and so on, in the World War. Does one really think that after the event we would get
out of nowhere the strength to play the role against the remaining victor which we did not venture to play in a
union with one of the two combatants?
At any rate, the World War has proven one thing explicitly: whoever conducts himself as a neutral in great world
historical conflicts, may perhaps at first make a little business, but, in terms of power politics, he will thereby
ultimately also be excluded from a codetermination of the world's fate.
Thus, had the American Union preserved her neutrality in the World War, today she would be regarded as a
power of the second rank, regardless of whether England or Germany had emerged as a victor. By entering the
War, she raised herself to England's naval strength, but in international political terms marked herself as a power
of decisive importance. Since her entry into the World War the American Union is appraised in a completely
different way. It lies in the nature of mankind's forgetfulness no longer to know [to forget], after only a short
time, what the general judgement of a situation had been only a few years before. Just as today we detect a
complete disregard of Germany's former greatness in the speeches of many foreign statesmen, just as little,
conversely, can we appraise the extent of the increase in value that the American Union has experienced in our
judgement since her entry into the World War.
This is also the most compelling statesmanlike justification for Italy's entry into the War against her former
allies. Had Italy not taken this step, she would now share the role of Spain, no matter how the dice had rolled.
The fact that she carried out the much criticised step to an active participation in the World War brought a rise in
her position and a strengthening of the same which has found its ultimate crowning expression in Fascism.
Without her entry into the War, the latter would have been a completely unthinkable phenomenon.
The German can ponder this with or without bitterness. It is important to learn from history, especially if its
teachings speak to us in such a compelling way.
Thus the belief that through a prudent, reserved neutrality vis-a-vis the developing conflicts in Europe and
elsewhere, one can some day reap the benefits thereof as a laughing third one, is false and idiotic. In general,
freedom is preserved neither by begging nor by cheating. And also not by work and industry, but exclusively by
struggle, and indeed by one's own struggle. Thus it is very easily possible that more weight is attached to the will
than to the deed. Not seldom, in the framework of a wise alliance policy, nations have achieved successes
unrelated to the success of their arms. But fate does not always measure a nation which boldly stakes its life
according to the dimensions of its deeds, but rather, very frequently, according to the dimensions of its will. The
history of Italian unification in the nineteenth century is noteworthy for this. But the World War also shows how
a whole number of States can achieve extraordinary political successes less through their military
accomplishments [successes] than through the foolhardy boldness with which they take sides and the
doggedness with which they hold out.
If Germany wants to put an end to her period of enslavement by all, she must under all circumstances actively
try to enter into a combination of powers in order to participate in the future shaping of European life in terms of
The objection that such participation contains a grievous risk is correct. But, after all, does one really believe that
we will achieve freedom without taking a risk? Or does one think that there has ever been a deed of world
history which was not linked with a risk? Was Frederick The Great's decision, for instance, to participate in the
first Silesian War, not linked with a risk? Or did Germany's unification by Bismarck entail no dangers? No, a
thousand times no! Beginning with man's birth up to his death, everything is questionable. Only death seems
certain. But for this very reason the ultimate commitment is not the worst for the reason that one day, in one way
or another, it will be demanded.
Naturally it is a matter of political sagacity to choose the stake in such a way that it yields the highest possible
gain. But not to stake anything at all for fear, perhaps, of picking the wrong horse means to renounce a Folk's
future. The objection that such an action may have the character of a risky gamble can most easily be refuted by
simple reference to previous historical experience. By a risky gamble we understand a game in which from the
outset the chances of winning are subject to the fate of chance. This will never be the case in politics. For the
more the ultimate decision lies in the darkness of the future, the more is the conviction of the possibility or
impossibility of a success erected on humanly perceptible factors. The task of a nation's political leadership is to
weigh these factors. The result of this examination, then, must also lead to a decision. Thus this decision is
consonant with one's own insight, and is sustained by faith in possible success on the basis of this insight. Hence
I can just as little call a politically decisive deed a risky gamble, just because its outcome is not one hundred
percent certain, as an operation undertaken by a surgeon the outcome of which likewise will not necessarily be
successful. From time immemorial it has always been in keeping with the nature of great men to execute deeds
whose success is even doubtful and indefinite with the utmost energy, if the necessity thereof as such lay before
them, and if after a mature examination of all conditions this very action alone could be considered.
The joy of responsibility in the framing of great decisions in the struggles of nations will, of course, be all the
greater the more the actors, by observation of their Folk, can conclude that even a miscarriage will not be able to
destroy the nation's vital strength. For in the long run a Folk, inwardly healthy at its core, can never be effaced
through defeats on the battlefield. Thus insofar as a Folk possesses this inner health, with the prerequisite of a
sufficient racial importance, the courage for difficult undertakings can be the greater since even the failure of the
same would not, by far, signify the downfall of such a Folk. And here Clausewitz is right, when in his principles
he asserts that, with a healthy Folk, such a defeat may repeatedly lead to a later resurgence, and that, conversely,
only cowardly subjection, that is, a supine surrender to fate, can lead to ultimate destruction. The neutrality,
however, which is today recommended to our Folk as the only action possible, is really nothing but a volitionless
surrender to a fate determined by foreign powers. And only therein lies the symptom and the possibility of our
decline. If, on the contrary, our Folk itself had undertaken abortive attempts to achieve freedom, a factor that
could be beneficial to our Folk's strength would lie in the very manifestation of this attitude. For let it not be said
that it is political sagacity which holds us back from such steps. No, it is a wretched cowardice and a lack of
principle which in this case, as so often in history, one tries to confuse with intelligence. Obviously a Folk under
the duress of foreign powers can be forced by circumstances to endure years of foreign oppression. But the less a
Folk can seriously do outwardly against overpowering forces, the more, however, will its internal life press
toward freedom and leave nothing untried that could be suitable for changing the momentarily given condition
one day by staking such a Folk's entire strength. One will then endure the yoke of a foreign conqueror, but with
clenched fists and gritted teeth, waiting for the hour which offers the first opportunity of shaking off the tyrant.
Something like this can be possible under the pressure of conditions. But what presents itself today as political
sagacity, however, is as a matter of fact a spirit of voluntary subjection, of unprincipled renunciation of any
resistance, indeed the shameless persecution of those who dare to think of such a resistance and whose work
obviously could serve their Folk's resurgence. It is the spirit of inner self disarmament, of the destruction of all
moral factors which one day could serve a resurrection of this Folk and State. This spirit can really not give itself
the airs of political sagacity, for actually it is a State destroying dishonourableness.
And, to be sure, this spirit must hate every attempt at an active participation of our Folk in future European
developments, because the necessity of a struggle against this spirit indeed lies in the mere attempt at such a
If, however, a State leadership seems to be affected by this corrupting spirit, it becomes the task of the
opposition which perceives, represents and thus espouses a Folk's real vital forces to inscribe the struggle [the
education] for national resurgence, and through it for national honour, on its banners. And it must not let itself be
intimidated by the assertion that foreign policy is the task of responsible State leadership, for there has not been
such a responsible leadership for a long time. On the contrary, it must adhere to the conception that, besides the
formal laws of momentary governments, there exist eternal obligations which compel every member of a nation
to do what is perceived as necessary for the existence of the Folkish Community. Even if this stands a thousand
times in opposition to the intentions of bad and incompetent governments.
Hence precisely in Germany today the highest obligation should devolve on the so called National Opposition, in
view of the unworthiness of the general leadership of our Folk to establish a clear foreign policy aim, and to
prepare and educate our Folk for the execution of these ideas. Primarily, it must launch the sharpest war against
the hope, widely spread today, that our fate can be changed somewhat by active cooperation with the League Of
Nations. In general, it must see to it that our Folk gradually realises that we must not expect an amelioration of
the German situation from institutions the representatives of which are the interested parties in our present
misfortune. Further, it must deepen the conviction that all social aspirations are Utopian promises devoid of any
real worth without the regaining of German freedom. It must further bring our Folk the knowledge that, for this
freedom, one way or another, only the staking of its own strength can be considered. And that, consequently, our
whole domestic and foreign policy must be such that by virtue of it our Folk's inner strength grows and
increases. Finally, it must enlighten the Folk to the effect that this staking of strength must take place for a really
worthwhile aim, and that for this purpose we cannot go forward to meet our fate alone, but will need allies.
GERMANY AND RUSSIA
The size of the possible military commitment as well as the relation of this means of power to those of the
surrounding States is of decisive importance for the question of the future shaping of German foreign policy,
apart from the inner power of our Folk, of its strength and assessment of character.
I need not express myself further on the moral inner weakness of our presentday Folk in this work. Our general
weaknesses which are in part grounded in a matter of blood, and in part lie in the nature of our present
governmental organisation, or must be attributed to the effects of our poor leadership, are perhaps less familiar
to the German public than, unfortunately, they are to the rest of the world, which knows them well. Most of the
measures of our oppressors are occasioned by knowledge of this weakness. But with all acknowledgment of the
factual conditions, it should still never be forgotten that the same people of today hardly ten years ago
accomplished deeds unrivalled in history. The German Folk which at the moment leaves such a depressing
impression has, nevertheless, more than once proved its powerful merit in world history. The World War itself
is the most glorious evidence of our Folk's heroism and spirit of sacrifice, of its death defying discipline and its
brilliant capability in thousands upon thousands of areas in the organisation of its life. Its purely military
leadership has also achieved immortal successes. Only the political leadership has failed. It was already the
precursor of that of today, even so much worse.
Today the inner qualities of our Folk may be a thousandfold unsatisfactory, but in one blow they will yield
another image, as soon as another fist takes the reins of events in order to lead our Folk out of its present
In our own history, we see how wonderful is precisely our Folk's capacity for transformation. Prussia in 1806
and Prussia in 1813. What a difference! In 1806, the State characterised by the most abject capitulation
everywhere, an unheard of wretchedness in the civic attitude, and in 1813 the State characterised by the most
glowing hatred against foreign domination and a sense of patriotic sacrifice for one's own Folk, the most heroic
will to fight for freedom! What, in truth, has changed since then? The Folk? No, in its inner essence it has
remained as before, only its leadership had come into other hands. A new spirit followed the weakness of the
Prussian governmental administration and the ossified and aged leadership of the post Frederick period. Baron
vom Stein and Gneisenau, Scharnhorst, Clausewitz and Bliicher were the representatives of the new Prussia.
And the world in a few months had again forgotten that seven years before this Prussia had undergone the
experience of Jena.
And was it, for instance, otherwise before the founding of the Reich? Hardly a decade was required for a new
Reich, which in the eyes of many seemed to be the most powerful embodiment of German power and mastery,
to arise out of the German decline, the German disunity, and the general political dishonourableness. A single
head, towering above all, had restored freedom of development to the German genius in a battle against the
mediocrity of the majority. Let us dispense with Bismarck in our history, and only wretched mediocrity would
fill the most glorious period for our Folk in centuries.
Just as the German Folk could in a few years be hurled down from its unprecedented greatness, by the
mediocrity of its leadership, into its present chaos, so can it be pulled up again by an iron fist. Its inner value
will then make its appearance so visibly before the entire world that merely the actuality of its existence must
compel a regard for and an appraisal of this fact.
If at the start, however, this value is a slumbering one, it is more than ever necessary to provide clarity on
Germany's real power value existing at the moment.
I have already tried to draw a brief picture of the momentary German instrument of military power, the Reich
Defence. Here I wish to sketch Germany's general military situation in relation to the surrounding world.
Germany at the present time is encircled by three power factors or power groups.
England, Russia and France are at present, militarily, the most threatening of Germany's neighbours. At the
same time, French power appears strengthened by a system of European alliances which reach from Paris to
Belgrade via Warsaw and Prague.
Germany lies wedged between these States, with completely open borders. What is especially threatening
thereby is that the western border of the Reich runs through Germany's greatest industrial region. This western
border, however, in consequence of its length and of the lack of all real natural barriers, offers only a few
possibilities for defence by a State whose military means seem most extremely limited. Even the Rhine cannot
be viewed as a fully effective line of military resistance. Not only because the possibility of finding the
necessary technical preparations for this has been taken away from Germany by the peace treaties, but because
the river itself offers even fewer obstacles to the passage of armies with modern equipment than the slight
means of German defence which must be dispersed over too long a front. Moreover, this river runs through
Germany's greatest industrial area, and consequently a struggle over it from the outset would mean the
destruction of the industrial areas and factories technically most important for national defence. But if in
consequence of a French German conflict Czechoslovakia should come under consideration as a further
opponent of Germany, a second great industrial region, Saxony, which could be useful industrially for the
conduct of the war, would be exposed to the greatest danger of war. Here too the border, without natural
defence, runs down to Bavaria, so broadly and openly that the prospect of a resistance promising success can
hardly be considered. If Poland also were to take part in such a war, the entire eastern border in addition, apart
from a few inadequate fortifications, would be defenceless against attack.
Whereas on the one hand the German borders are militarily indefensible and are surrounded openly in long lines
by enemies, our North Sea coast is especially small and confined. The naval power for its defence is laughable,
and completely worthless as such. The Fleet which we claim today, beginning with our so called battleships, is
at best the finest target material for enemy firing practice. The two newly built ships, light cruisers, modern in
themselves, have no decisive value, indeed not even an apparent one. The Fleet we are allowed is inadequate
even for the Baltic Sea. All in all, the only value of our Fleet is at most that of a floating gunnery school.
Thus, in case of a conflict with any naval power, not only would German trade be ended in a moment, but there
would also be the danger of landings.
The entire unpropitiousness of our military situation stems from this other consideration:
Berlin, the Reich's capital, is barely 175 kilometres from the Polish border. It lies scarcely 190 kilometres from
the nearest Czech border, just as far as the distance between Wismar and the Stettin Lagoon as the crow flies.
Thus this means that Berlin can be reached by modern aircraft in less than one hour from these borders. If we
draw a line stretching 60 kilometres east of the Rhine River, within it will lie almost the entire western German
industrial region. From Frankfurt to Dortmund there is hardly one major German industrial locality which does
not lie within this zone. As long as France occupies a part of the left bank of the Rhine, she is in a position to
push forward by aircraft into the heart of our western German industrial region in hardly 30 minutes. Munchen
is just as far from the Czech borders as Berlin is from the Polish and Czech borders. Czech military aircraft
would need approximately 60 minutes to reach Munchen, 40 minutes to Nuremberg, 30 minutes to reach
Regensburg; even Augsburg lies only 200 kilometres from the Czech border, and consequently could also be
easily reached in scarcely an hour by presentday aeroplanes. As the crow flies, however, Augsburg is almost as
distant from the Czech border as it is from the French border. From Augsburg to StraBburg the line of flight is
230 kilometres, but it is only 210 kilometres to the nearest French border. Hence Augsburg also lies within a
zone which can be reached by hostile aircraft in an hour. Indeed, if we examine the German border from this
point of view, it turns out that within an hour's flight time the following can be reached: the entire industrial
region in western Germany, including Osnabriick, Bielefeld, Kassel, Wurzburg, Stuttgart, Ulm, Augsburg. In
the east: Munchen, Augsburg, Wurzburg, Magdeburg, Berlin, Stettin. In other words, with the present situation
of the German borders, there is only a very small area embracing a few square kilometres which could not be
visited by hostile aircraft within the first hour.
Hence France must be considered as the most dangerous enemy because she alone, thanks to her alliances, is in
a position to be able to threaten almost the whole of Germany with aircraft, even an hour after the outbreak of a
At the present time, the military counteractions Germany could take against the application of this weapon, all
in all, are quite nil.
This single observation already shows the hopeless situation into which a German resistance against France,
based only on itself, must land at once. Whoever has himself been often subjected in the field to the effects of
an enemy air attack best knows how to appraise especially the moral effects resulting therefrom.
But Hamburg and Bremen, too, in general all our coastal cities, would today no longer escape this fate since the
large navies have the possibility of bringing floating landing places very close to the coast by means of aircraft
But Germany today not only has no technically effective weapons in a sufficient amount to oppose to air
attacks. Even otherwise the purely technical equipment of our small Reich Defence is hopelessly inferior to that
of our enemy. The lack of heavy artillery might be put up with more easily than the lack of a really promising
possibility of defence against armoured tanks. If Germany today were thrust into a war against France and her
allies without beforehand being in a position to be able to find at least the most necessary preparations for
defence, the issue would be decided in a few days on the basis of the purely technical superiority of our
adversaries. Measures required for defence against such a hostile attack could no longer be taken during the
Likewise false is the opinion that we will be able to put up a resistance, at least for a certain time, by improvised
means, since these very improvisations already require a certain amount of time which is no longer available in
case of a conflict. For events would roll more quickly and thereby produce more facts than there would be time
left for us to organise countermeasures against these events.
Hence, from whatever side we consider the possibilities of foreign policy, for Germany one case must in
principle be excluded: we will never be able to proceed against the forces now mobilised in Europe by relying
only on our military means. Thus any combination which brings Germany into conflict with France, England,
Poland and Czechoslovakia, and so on, without beforehand giving her the possibility of a thorough preparation,
is therefore void.
This fundamental perception is important because there are still among us in Germany, even today, well
meaning, national minded men who in all earnestness believe that we must enter into an association with
Even if considered only from a purely military point of view, such an idea is unviable or catastrophic for
Just as before the year 1914, today also we can assume as unconditionally established for always that in any
conflict involving Germany, regardless on what grounds, regardless for what reasons, France will always be our
adversary. Whatever European combinations may emerge in the future, France will always take part in them in
a manner hostile to Germany. This lies in the traditionally anchored intention of French foreign policy. It is
false to believe that the outcome of the War has changed anything on this score. On the contrary, the World War
did not bring about for France the complete fulfilment of the war aim she had in mind. For this aim was by no
means only the regaining of Alsace-Lorraine, but, on the contrary, Alsace-Lorraine itself represents only a small
step in the direction of the goal of French foreign policy. That the possession of Alsace-Lorraine in no way
abolished the tendencies of French policy, aggressively directed against Germany, is most strikingly proved by
the fact that at the very time France possessed Alsace-Lorraine, the tendency of French foreign policy directed
against Germany was, nevertheless, already in existence. The year 1870 showed more clearly than the year
1914 what France ultimately intended. At that time no need was felt to veil the aggressive character of French
foreign policy. In the year 1914, perhaps made wise by experiences, perhaps also influenced by England, the
French considered it more correct to profess general ideals of humanity on the one hand, and to limit their aim
to Alsace-Lorraine on the other. These tactical considerations, however, did not in the least signify an inner
deflection from the former goals of French policy, but only a concealment of the same. Afterward, as before, the
leading idea of French foreign policy was the conquest of the Rhine River borders, whereby the mutilation of
Germany into individual States, linked as loosely as possible to each other, was viewed as the best defence of
this border. That this safeguarding of France in Europe, achieved thereby, was to serve the fulfilment of greater
world political aims, does not alter the fact that for Germany these French continental political intentions are a
question of life and death.
As a matter of fact, indeed, France also had never taken part in a coalition in which German interests in any way
would have been promoted. In the last three hundred years, Germany had been attacked by France twenty nine
times all told up to 1870. A fact which, on the eve of the Battle Of Sedan, moved Bismarck to oppose the
French General Wimpffen most sharply when the latter tried to achieve a mitigation of the terms of surrender. It
was Bismarck at that time who, in response to the declaration that France would not forget a German
concession but would remember it gratefully forever in the future, immediately stood up and confronted the
French negotiator with the hard, naked facts of history. Bismarck stressed, in this sense, that France had
attacked Germany so often in the last three hundred years, regardless of the prevailing form of government, that
for all the future he was convinced that regardless how the capitulation was formulated, France would
immediately attack Germany anew as soon as she felt strong enough for it, either through her own strength or
through the strength of allies.
Thereby Bismarck had more correctly appraised French mentality than our present political leaders of Germany.
He could do this because he, who himself had a policy aim in view, could also have an inner understanding of
the policy goals others set themselves. For Bismarck the intention of French foreign policy was clearly
established. It is incomprehensible to our presentday leaders, however, because they are lacking in every clear
If, moreover, France, on the occasion of her entry into the World War, had only the intention of regaining
Alsace-Lorraine as a definite aim, the energy of the French war leadership would not have been nearly what it
was. The political leadership, especially, would not have come around to a determination which seemed worthy
of the greatest admiration during many situations during the World War. It lay, however, in the nature of this
greatest coalition war of all times that a complete fulfilment of all wishes was all the less possible since the
internal interests of the participant nations themselves had exhibited very great divergences. The French
intention [desire] of a complete effacement of Germany in Europe still stood opposed to the English desire to
prevent an unconditional French position of hegemony, as much as such a one for Germany.
Thus, for the curtailment of French war aims, it was important that the German collapse take place in forms that
did not yet make public opinion fully aware of the whole dimension of the catastrophe. In France they had come
to know the German Grenadier in such a way that only with hesitation could they look forward to a possibility
that France might be forced to step forth alone for the fulfilment of her ultimate political goal. Later, however,
under the impact of Germany's inner defeat, now become generally visible, when they might have been more
determined on such an action, the war psychosis in the other parts of the world had already so widely abated
that a unilateral action by France for a final aim of such magnitude could no longer have been carried out
without opposition on the part of her former allies.
Thereby we are not saying that France renounced her aim. On the contrary, she will try as persistently as before
to achieve in the future what the present prevented. France will also in the future, as soon as she feels capable of
this through her own power or the power of her allies, attempt to dissolve Germany, and try to occupy the bank
of the Rhine River in order in this way to be able to commit French strength elsewhere with no threat to her
rear. That thereby France is not in the least irritated in her intention by changes in the forms of German
Government is all the more comprehensible since the French Folk itself, indeed, without any regard to its
constitutions of the moment, clings equally to its foreign policy ideas. A Folk which itself always pursues a
definite foreign policy goal, paying no regard as to whether as rulers it has a republic or a monarchy, bourgeois
democracy or a Jacobin terror, will have no understanding that another Folk, perhaps by a change of its form of
government, could also undertake a change of its foreign policy aims. Hence nothing will change France's
attitude to Germany as such, regardless whether in Germany an Reich or a Republic represents the nation, or
even socialist terror rules the State.
Obviously, France is not indifferent vis-a-vis German events, but at the same time her attitude is determined
only by the probability of a greater success, that is, of a facilitation of its foreign policy action by a definite
German form of government. France will wish Germany the constitution which will leave France to expect the
least resistance to Germany's destruction. If, therefore, the German Republic as a special sign of its value tries
to induce French friendship, in reality this is the most devastating certificate of its incapacity. For it is
welcomed in Paris only because France regards it as poor in values for Germany. In no way is it thereby said
that France will confront this German Republic otherwise than as it has in analogous conditions of our
governmental weakness in past times. On the Seine River they were always fonder of German weakness than
German strength because it seemed to guarantee France's foreign policy activity an easier success.
This French tendency will in no way be changed by the fact that the French Folk suffer from no lack of
territory. For in France policy for centuries has least been determined by sheer economic distress, but much
more by impulses of feeling. France is a classic example of the fact that the sense of a healthy territorial gain
policy can easily change over into its opposite, once Folkish principles are no longer determining, and so called
governmental national principles take their place. French national chauvinism has departed from Folkish points
of view to such an extent that, for the gratification of a mere power titillation, they Negrify their own blood just
to maintain the character of a grand nation numerically. Hence France will also be an eternal disturber of world
peace for as long as a decisive and fundamental lesson is not administered to this Folk some day. Moreover,
nobody has better characterised the nature of French vanity than Schopenhauer with his utterance: Africa has its
monkeys, Europe has its French.
French foreign policy has always received its inner impulse from this mixture of vanity and megalomania. Who
in Germany wants to wait and hope that, the more France is estranged from rational clear thinking, in
consequence of her general Negrification, she will yet one day undertake a change in her disposition and
intentions toward Germany?
No, regardless of how the next development in Europe proceeds, France, by utilising momentary German
weaknesses and all the diplomatic and military possibilities at her disposal, will always seek to inflict harm on
us and to split our Folk so that she can ultimately bring it to a complete disintegration.
Hence for Germany any coalition which does not signify a binding of France is by itself impermissible.
The belief in a German Russian understanding is in itself fantastic as long as a regime rales in Russia which is
permeated by only one aim: to carry over the Bolshevist poisoning to Germany. It is natural, therefore, for
communist elements to agitate for a German Russian alliance. They thereby hope, rightfully, to be able to lead
Germany herself to Bolshevism. It is incomprehensible, however, if national Germans believe that it is possible
to achieve an understanding with a State whose greatest interest is the destruction of this very national
Germany. Obviously, should such an alliance finally come into being today, its result would be the complete
rule of Jewry in Germany exactly as in Russia. Likewise incomprehensible is the opinion that one can wage a
war against the capitalist Western European world with this Russia. For, in the first place, presentday Russia is
anything but an anticapitalist State. It is, to be sure, a country that has destroyed its own national economy, but,
nevertheless, only in order to give international finance capital the possibility of an absolute control. If this were
not so, how could it be, secondly, that the very capitalist world in Germany takes a position in favour of such an
alliance? It is after all the Jewish press organs of the most outspoken stock exchange interests who espouse the
cause of a German Russian alliance in Germany. Does one really believe that the Berlin Daily Paper or the
Frankfurt Times and all their illustrated papers speak more or less overtly for Bolshevik Russia because the
latter is an anticapitalist State? In political matters, it is always a curse when the wish becomes father to the
To be sure, it is conceivable that in Russia itself an internal change within the Bolshevik world may ensue to the
extent that the Jewish element, perhaps, could be crowded out by a more or less Russian national element. Then
the possibility might not be excluded that presentday Bolshevik Russia, in reality Jewish capitalistic, would be
driven toward [to a] national anticapitalist tendencies. In this case, to which many things seem to point, it would
be conceivable, to be sure, that Western European capitalism would seriously take a position against Russia.
But then an alliance of Germany with this Russia would also be complete insanity. For the idea that such an
alliance could somehow be held secret is as unjustified as the hope to arm ourselves for the conflict through
military preparations that are made quietly.
Then there would only be two real possibilities: either this alliance would be viewed by the Western European
world, poising itself against Russia, as a danger, or not. If yes, then I don't know who can seriously believe that
there will be time for us to arm ourselves in a manner suitable at least to prevent a collapse in the first twenty
four hours. Or do people really believe in earnest that France will wait until we have built our air defence and
our tank defence? Or do they believe that this can happen secretly in a country in which treason is no longer
considered shameless, but a courageous deed worthy of emulation? No, if Germany really wants to enter into an
alliance with Russia against Western Europe, then Germany will again become a historic battlefield tomorrow.
On top of this, it requires an entirely uncommon fantasy to fancy that Russia could somehow come to
Germany's help, in what way I know not. The only success of such an action would be that Russia could thereby
still escape a catastrophe for a certain time, as it would first break over Germany. But a popular inducement for
such a struggle against Germany could hardly exist, especially in the western States. Just imagine Germany
allied with a real anticapitalist Russia, and then picture how this democratic world Jewish press would mobilise
all the instincts of the other nations against Germany. How, especially in France, complete harmony would
immediately be established between French national chauvinism and the Jewish stock exchange press. For let
one not confuse such a process with the struggle of White Russian Generals against the Bolshevism of an earlier
time. In the years 1919 and 1920, national White Russia fought against the Jewish stock exchange revolution, in
truth international capitalist red revolution in the highest sense. Today, however, anticapitalist Bolshevism,
become national, would stand in a struggle against world Jewry. Whoever understands the importance of press
propaganda, and its infinite possibilities for inciting nations and besetting people, can imagine to what orgies of
hate and passion against Germany the European western nations would be whipped. For then Germany would
no longer be allied with the Russia of a great, noteworthy, ethical, bold idea, but with the despoilers of the
culture of mankind.
Above all, there could be no better chance for the French government to master its own inner difficulties than to
undertake a fully dangerfree struggle against Germany in such a case. French national chauvinism could be all
the more satisfied since then, under the protection of a new world coalition, it could come much closer to the
fulfilment of the ultimate war aim. For regardless of the nature of the alliance between Germany and Russia,
militarily, Germany alone would have to sustain the most terrible blows. Wholly apart from the fact that Russia
does not border directly on Germany and, consequently, must itself first overrun the Polish State — even in the
case of a subjugation of Poland by Russia which as such is quite improbable — in the best of circumstances such
Russian help could essentially arrive on German territory only when Germany no longer existed. But the idea of
a landing of Russian Divisions anywhere in Germany is completely excluded as long as England and France
have complete control of the Baltic Sea. Moreover, the landing of Russian troops in Germany would fail
because of countless technical deficiencies.
Thus, should a German Russian alliance some day have to undergo the test of reality, and there is no such thing
as an alliance without the idea of war, Germany would be exposed to the concentrated attacks of all Western
Europe without being able to provide for her own defence in a serious way.
But now there remains the question of just what meaning a German Russian alliance should have in general.
Only the one of preserving Russia from destruction and sacrificing Germany for that? Regardless of how this
alliance would turn out in the end, Germany could not arrive at setting a decisive foreign policy goal. For
thereby nothing would be changed regarding the fundamental vital question, indeed regarding the vital needs, of
our Folk. On the contrary, Germany, thereby, would be more than ever cut off from the only rational territorial
policy in order to pad out her future with the scuffle over unimportant border adjustments. For the question of
space for our Folk cannot be solved either in the west or in the south of Europe.
The hope in a German Russian alliance, which haunts the minds of even many German national politicians,
however, is more than questionable for still another reason.
In general, it seems self evident in national circles that we cannot very well ally ourselves with a Jewish
Bolshevist Russia, since the result, according to all probability, would be a Bolshevisation of Germany.
Obviously, we do not want this. But we base ourselves on the hope that one day the Jewish character — and
thereby the most fundamentally international capitalistic character of Bolshevism in Russia ~ might disappear
in order to make place for a national communism, anticapitalist on a world scale. Then this Russia, permeated
once more by national tendencies, might very well come up for consideration in terms of an alliance with
This is a very great error. It rests on an extraordinary ignorance of the psyche of the Slavic Folk Soul. This
should not amaze anybody if we reflect on how little knowledge even politically minded Germany had of the
spiritual conditions of her erstwhile allies. Otherwise we would never have fallen so low. If, therefore, today the
national politicians in favour of friendship with Russia try to motivate their policy by reference to Bismarck's
analogous attitudes, they disregard a whole multitude of important factors which at that time, but not today,
spoke in favour of Russian friendship.
The Russia which Bismarck knew was not a typical Slavic State, at least insofar as it was a question of the
political leadership of the same. In general, Slavdom is lacking in Stateforming forces. In Russia especially,
government formations were always attended to by foreign elements. Since the time of Peter The Great there
were, above all, very many Baltic Germans who formed the skeleton and the brains of the Russian State. In the
course of centuries, countless thousands of these Germans have been Russified, but only in the sense in which
our own bourgeoisie, our national bourgeoisie, would like to Germanise or Teutonise Poles or Czechs. Just as in
this case the new fledged German is in truth only a German speaking Pole or Czech, likewise did these artificial
Russians remain German, or better, Teutons, according to their blood and hence their capabilities. Russia is
indebted to this Teutonic upper stratum for her political State as well as for what little exists of her cultural
value. A great Russia would neither have arisen nor would she have been able to preserve herself without this
really German upper and intellectual stratum. As long as Russia had been a State with an autocratic form of
government, this upper stratum, which in truth was not at all Russian, also decisively influenced the political
life of the gigantic empire. Even Bismarck knew this Russia at least in part. It was with this Russia that the
master of German political statesmanship had political dealings. But, even in his lifetime, the reliability and
stability of Russian policy, both domestic and foreign, fluctuated precariously and became in part incalculable.
This lay in the gradual suppression of the German upper stratum. This process of the transformation of the
Russian intelligentsia was caused in part by a bleeding of the Russian nation in consequence of many wars,
which, as has been already mentioned in this book, primarily decimate the racially more valuable forces.
Actually the officer corps especially was for the most part non Slav by descent, but in every case not of Russian
blood. On top of this came the slight increase in the upper stratum of the intelligentsia as such, and finally the
artificial training by the schools of a real Russiandom with regard to blood. The slight Statepreserving value of
the new Russian intelligentsia as such was grounded on blood, and revealed itself most sharply perhaps in the
nihilism of the Russian universities. Most fundamentally, however, this nihilism was nothing but the opposition,
determined by blood, of real Russiandom to the racially alien upper stratum.
The Pan Slavic idea was counterposed to the Russian idea of the State in proportion as Russia's Teutonic,
Stateforming upper stratum was replaced by a racially pure Russian bourgeois class. From the first hour of its
birth it was Folkish, Slavish [Russian], and anti German. The anti German disposition of the newly emerging
Russiandom, especially in the strata of the so called intelligentsia, however, was not only a pure reflex action
against the former autocratic alien upper class in Russia, for instance, on the grounds of politically liberal
modes of thought. Rather, in the most intrinsic sense, it was the protest of the Slavic nature against the German.
They are two Folk Souls which have only very little in common, whereby indeed it must first be established
whether this littleness they have in common has its cause in the confusedly broken racial individual elements of
which the Russian as well as the German Folk seems to be constituted. Thus what is common to us and to the
Russians is as little consonant with the German as with the Russian character but, instead, is to be ascribed only
to our mixture of bloods which has brought just as many eastern Slavic elements to Germany as Nordic German
ones to Russia.
But if as a test of the two spiritual endowments we were to take a purely Nordic German, from Westphalia let us
say, and place a purely Slavic Russian opposite to him, an infinite chasm would yawn between these two
representatives of the two Folks. Actually the Slavic Russian Folk has always felt this, and has therefore always
had an instinctive antipathy toward the German. Solid thoroughness as well as the cold logic of sober thought,
are something which the real Russian inwardly finds unsympathetic and in part even incomprehensible. Our
sense of order will not only find no reciprocal love, but will always elicit aversion. What with us is felt as
something self evident is for the Russian, however, an affliction, since it represents a restriction of his natural,
differently structured spiritual and instinctual life. Hence Slavic Russia will feel itself drawn more and more to
France. And indeed to an increasing degree, since the Frankish Nordic element is also being suppressed in
France. The facile, superficial, more or less effeminate French life was more able to fascinate the Slav because
inwardly it is closer to him than the severities of our German struggle for existence. Hence it is no accident if
Pan Slavic Russia waxes politically enthusiastic over France, exactly as the Russian intelligentsia of Slavic
blood found in Paris the Mecca of its own needs for civilisation.
The process of the rise of a Russian national bourgeoisie at the same time caused [signified] an inner alienation
of this new Russia vis-a-vis Germany, which now could no longer build on a racially related Russian upper
As a matter of fact, already at the turn of the century, the anti German orientation of the representatives of the
Folkish Pan Slav idea was so strong and its influence on Russian policy had grown to such an extent that even
Germany's more than decent attitude vis-a-vis Russia, on the occasion of the Russian Japanese war, could no
longer check the further estrangement of the two States. Then came the World War which to no little extent had
also been kindled by the Pan Slavist agitation. The real governmental Russia, insofar as it had been represented
by the erstwhile upper stratum, therefore could hardly put in a word anymore.
The World War itself then brought about a further [the last] bleeding of Russia's Nordic German elements, and
the last remains were finally extirpated by the Revolution and Bolshevism. It was not as if the Slav race instinct
had deliberately carried out the struggle for the extermination of the former non Russian upper stratum by itself.
No, it had acquired new leaders meantime in Jewry. Jewry, pressing toward the upper strata and therefore
toward supreme leadership, has exterminated the former alien upper class with the help of the Slav race instinct.
Thus it is a quite understandable process if Jewry has taken over the leadership of all areas of Russian life with
the Bolshevik revolution, since by itself and out of itself Slavdom is altogether lacking in any organising ability
and thereby also in any Stateforming and Statepreserving power. Take away all the elements which are not
purely Slavic from Slavdom, and it will immediately succumb to disintegration as a State. To be sure,
fundamentally, any formation of States may at first have its innermost inducement in the encounter between
Folks of a higher and lower order, whereby the bearers of the higher blood value — for reasons of self
preservation — develop a definite community spirit which first allows them the possibility of an organisation
and a rule over inferior Folks. Only the overcoming of common tasks compels the adoption of organisational
forms. But the difference between the Stateforming and the non Stateforming elements lies precisely in the fact
that the formation of an organisation for the preservation of their stock vis-a-vis other types becomes possible
for the former, whereas the non Stateforming incompetents are not capable by themselves of finding those
organisational forms which would guarantee their existence vis-a-vis others.
Thus presentday Russia or, better said, presentday Slavdom of Russian nationality, has received as master the
Jew, who first eliminated the former upper stratum, and now must prove his own Stateforming power. In view
of the endowment of Jewry, which after all is only destructive, it will operate even here only as the historical
ferment of decomposition. It has summoned to its help spirits of which it can no longer rid itself, and the
struggle of the inwardly anti State Pan Slav idea against the Bolshevist Jewish State idea will end with the
destruction of Jewry. What will then remain will be a Russia as insignificant in governmental power as she will
be deeply rooted in an anti German attitude. Since this State will no longer possess a Statepreserving upper
stratum anchored anywhere, it will become a source of eternal unrest and eternal insecurity. A gigantic land
area will thus be surrendered to the most variegated fate, and instead of stabilisation of relations between States
on Earth, a period of the most restless changes will begin.
Thus the first phase of these developments will be that the most different nations of the world will try to enter
into relations with this enormous complex of States in order thereby to bring about a strengthening of their own
position and intentions. But such an attempt will always be linked to the effort also to exert their own
intellectual and organisational influence on Russia at the same time.
Germany may not hope to come up for consideration in any way during this development. The whole mentality
of presentday and future Russia is opposed to this. For the future, an alliance of Germany with Russia has no
sense for Germany, neither from the standpoint of sober expediency, nor from that of human community. On
the contrary, it is good fortune for the future that this development has taken place in just this way because,
thereby, a spell has been broken which would have prevented us from seeking the goal of German foreign
policy there where it solely and exclusively can lie: territory in the east.
w w w . adolfhitler . ws
GERMAN FOREIGN POLICY
In view of Germany's hopeless military situation, the following must be borne in mind in the formulation of
future German foreign policy.
Germany cannot bring about a change in her present situation by herself, so far as this must ensue by means of
military power. Germany cannot hope that a change of her situation will emerge through measures taken by the
League Of Nations, as long as the determining representatives of this institution are at the same time the parties
interested in Germany's destruction. Germany cannot hope to change her present situation through a
combination of powers which brings her into conflict with the French system of alliances surrounding Germany,
without first acquiring the possibility of eliminating her sheer military powerlessness so that, in case the
commitments of the alliance go into effect, she may be able to come forward immediately with the prospect of
Germany cannot hope to find such a combination of powers as long as her ultimate foreign policy aim does not
seem clearly established, and, at the same time does not contradict the interests of those States which can be
considered in terms of an alliance with Germany — indeed, even appear serviceable to them.
Germany cannot hope that these States can be found outside the League Of Nations. On the contrary, her only
hope must consist in her eventual success in extricating individual States from the coalition of victor States, and
building a new group of interested parties with new aims which cannot be realised through the League Of
Nations because of its whole nature. Germany may only hope to achieve success in this way if she finally
renounces her former vacillating seesaw policy, and fundamentally decides upon a single direction, and at the
same time assumes and bears all the consequences.
Germany should never hope to make world history through alliances with nations whose military value seems
sufficiently characterised by the fact of their former defeats, or whose general racial importance, is inferior. For
the struggle for the regaining of German freedom will thereby again raise German history to the level of world
history. Germany should never forget for a moment that regardless how, and along what ways, she thinks to
change her fate, France will be her enemy, and that France from the outset can count on any combination of
powers that turns against Germany.
w w w . adolfhitler . ws
We cannot examine Germany's foreign policy possibilities without first possessing clarity on what we want in
Germany itself, that is, on how Germany itself thinks to shape her future. Further, we must then try to determine
clearly the foreign policy goals of those powers in Europe which, as members of the coalition of victors, are
important as world powers.
I have already dealt with Germany's various foreign policy possibilities in this book. Nevertheless, I shall once
more briefly present the possible foreign policy goals so that they may yield a basis for the critical examination
of the relations of these individual foreign policy aims to those of other European States.
1) Germany can renounce setting a foreign policy goal altogether. This means that, in reality, she can decide for
anything and need be committed to nothing at all.
Thus in the future she will continue the policy of the last thirty years, but under other conditions. If now the
world consisted just of States with a similar political aimlessness, Germany could at least endure this even
though it could hardly be justified. But this is not at all the case. Thus, just as in ordinary life a man with a fixed
life goal that he tries to achieve at all events will always be superior to others who live aimlessly, exactly
likewise is it in the life of nations. But, above all, this is far from saying that a State without a political goal is in
the position to avoid dangers which such a goal may bring in its train. For just as it seems exempt from an
active function, in consequence of its own political aimlessness, in its very passiveness it can also just as easily
become the victim of the political aims of others. For the action of a State is not only determined by its own
will, but also by that of others, with the sole difference that in one case it itself can determine the law of action,
whereas in the other case the latter is forced upon it. Not to want a war because of a peaceful sentiment, is far
from saying that it can also be avoided. And to avoid a war at any price is far from signifying saving life in the
face of death.
Germany's situation in Europe today is such that she is far from allowing herself to hope that she may go
forward to a condition of contemplative peace with her own political aimlessness. No such possibility exists for
a nation located in the heart of Europe. Either Germany itself tries actively to take part in the shaping of life, or
she will be a passive object of the lifeshaping activity of other nations. All the sagacity hitherto supposedly able
to extricate nations from historical dangers through declarations of a general disinterest has, up to now, always
shown itself to be an error as cowardly as it is stupid. Whoever will not be a hammer in history, will be an anvil.
In all its development up to now, our German Folk has had a choice only between these two possibilities. When
it itself wanted to make history, and accordingly joyfully and boldly staked all, then it was still the hammer.
When it believed that it could renounce the obligations of the struggle for existence, it remained, up to now, the
anvil on which others fought out their struggle for existence, or it itself served the alien world as nutriment.
Hence, if Germany wants to live, she must take the defence of this life upon herself, and even here the best
parry is a thrust. Indeed, Germany may not hope at all that she can still do something for shaping her own life, if
she does not make a strong effort to set a clear foreign policy aim which seems suitable for bringing the German
struggle for existence into an intelligent relation to the interests of other nations.
If we do not do this, however, aimlessness on a large scale will cause planlessness in particulars. This
planlessness will gradually turn us into a second Poland in Europe. In the very proportion that we let our own
forces become weaker, thanks to our general political defeatism, and the only activity of our life is spent in a
mere domestic policy, we will sink to being a puppet of historical events whose motive forces spring from the
struggle for existence and for their interests waged by other nations.
Moreover, nations which are not able to take clear decisions over their own future and accordingly would like
best of all not to participate in the game of world development, will be viewed by all the other players as a
spoilsport and equally hated. Indeed, it can even happen that, on the contrary, the planlessness of individual
political actions, grounded in the general foreign policy aimlessness, is regarded as a very shrewd impenetrable
game and responded to accordingly. It was this which befell us as a misfortune in the pre War period. The more
impenetrable, because they were incomprehensible, were the political decisions of the German Governments of
that time, the more suspicious they seemed. And all the more, therefore, were especially dangerous ideas
suspected behind the most stupid step.
Thus, if today Germany no longer makes an effort to arrive at a clear political goal, in practice she renounces all
possibilities of a revision of her present fate, without in the least being able to avoid future dangers.
2) Germany desires to effect the sustenance of the German Folk by peaceful economic means, as up to now.
Accordingly, even in the future, she will participate most decisively in world industry, export and trade. Thus
she will again want a great merchant fleet, she will want coaling stations and bases in other parts of the world,
and finally she will want not only international sales markets, but also her own sources of raw material, if
possible, in the form of colonies. In the future such a development will necessarily have to be protected,
especially by maritime means of power.
This whole political goal for the future is a Utopia, unless England is seen as defeated beforehand. It establishes
anew all the causes which in 1914 resulted in the World War. Any attempt by Germany to renew her past along
this way must end with England's mortal emnity, alongside which France may be reckoned as a most certain
partner from the outset.
From a Folkish standpoint setting, this foreign policy aim is calamitous, and it is madness from the point of
view of power politics.
3) Germany establishes the restoration of the borders of the year 1914 as her foreign policy aim.
This goal is insufficient from a national standpoint, unsatisfactory from a military point of view, impossible
from a Folkish standpoint with its eye on the future, and mad from the viewpoint of its consequences. Thereby,
even in the future, Germany would have the whole coalition of former victors against her in a compact front. In
view of our present military position, which with a continuation of the present situation will worsen from year
to year, just how we are to restore the old borders is the impenetrable secret of our national bourgeois and
patriotic government politicians.
4) Germany decides to go over to a clear, farseeing territorial policy. Thereby she abandons all attempts at
world industry and world trade, and instead concentrates all her strength in order, through the allotment of
sufficient living space for the next hundred years to our Folk, also to prescribe a path of life. Since this territory
can be only in the east, the obligation to be a naval power also recedes into the background. Germany tries anew
to champion her interests through the formation of a decisive power on land.
This aim is equally in keeping with the highest national as well as Folkish requirements. It likewise presupposes
great military power means for its execution, but does not necessarily bring Germany into conflict with all
European great powers. As surely as France here will remain Germany's enemy, just as little does the nature of
such a political aim contain a reason for England, and especially for Italy, to maintain the enmity of the World
w w w . adolfhitler . ws
ENGLAND AS AN ALLY
It is fitting to review the great foreign aims of the other European powers for a closer understanding of the
possibilities just adduced. In part these aims are recognisable in the previous activity and efficacy of these
States, in part they are virtually laid down programmatically, and otherwise lie in vital needs that are so clearly
recognisable that even if the States momentarily embark on other paths, the compulsion of a harsher reality
necessarily leads them back to these aims.
That England has a clear foreign policy goal is proved by the fact of the existence and therewith of the rise of
this giant empire. Let no one fancy, after all, that a world empire can ever be forged without a clear will thereto.
Obviously not every single member of such a nation goes to work every day with the idea of setting a great
foreign policy goal, but in a completely natural way even an entire Folk will be gripped by such a goal so that
even the unconscious acts of individuals nevertheless lie in the general line of the aim that has been set and
actually benefit it. Indeed the general political goal will slowly stamp itself on the very character of such a Folk,
and the pride of the presentday Englishman is no different from the pride of the former Romans. The opinion
that a world empire owes its rise to chance, or that, at least, the events which conditioned its establishment were
accidental historical processes which always turned out luckily for a nation, is false. Ancient Rome owed its
greatness, exactly as does presentday England, to the soundness of Moltke's assertion that in the long run luck is
always with the fit. This fitness of a Folk in no way lies only in racial value, but also in the ability and skill with
which these values are applied. A world empire of the size of ancient Rome, or of present day Great Britain, is
always the result of a marriage between the highest race value and the clearest political aim. As soon as one of
these two factors begins to be lacking, first a weakening sets in, and ultimately perhaps even a decline.
Presentday England's aim is conditioned by the race value of Anglosaxonism as such, and by her insular
position. It lay in the race value of Anglosaxonism to strive for territorial space. Of necessity, this drive could
find fulfilment only outside presentday Europe. Not that the English had not, from time to time, also attempted
to take soil in Europe for their expansionist lusts. But all these enterprises failed because of the fact that they
were opposed by States which at that time were of a no less great racial fitness. Later English expansion in the
so called colonies led at the outset to an extraordinary increase of English maritime life. It is interesting to see
how England, which at first exported men, ultimately went over to the export of commodities, and thereby
weakened her own agriculture. Although now a great part of the English Folk, indeed the average in general, is
inferior to the German peak value, nevertheless the centuries old tradition of this Folk has become so much part
of its own flesh and blood that vis-a-vis our own German Folk it possesses considerable political advantages. If
today the globe has an English world empire, then for the time being there is also no Folk which, on the grounds
of its general civic political characteristics as well as its average political sagacity, would be more fitted for it.
The fundamental idea which dominated English colonial policy, on the one hand, was to find a territorial market
for English human material and to keep the latter in a governmental relation with the Motherland; and, on the
other hand, to secure the English economy's markets and sources of raw material. It is understandable that the
Englishman is convinced that the German cannot colonise, just as it is understandable, conversely, that the
German believes the same about the Englishman. Both Folks take different standpoints in judging colonising
capacities. Thus the English standpoint was infinitely more practical, more sober, and the German standpoint
more romantic. When Germany strove for her first colonies, she was already a military State in Europe and
thereby a power State of the first rank. She had wrested the title of a world power through imperishable
accomplishments in all fields of human culture as well as in that of military skill. It was now noteworthy that
especially in the nineteenth century a general impulse toward colonies permeated all nations, whereas the
original leading idea had already fully declined. For example, Germany motivated her claim to colonies with
her ability and her desire to spread German culture. As such it was nonsense. For culture, which is the general
life expression of a definite Folk, cannot be transmitted to another Folk with wholly other psychic prerequisites.
This may, at best, go with a so called international civilisation which stands in the same relation to culture as
jazz music to a Beethoven symphony. But wholly apart from this, it would never have occurred to an
Englishman at the time England's colonies were founded to motivate his actions otherwise than with the very
real and sober advantages which they might bring with them. If later England espoused the freedom of the seas
or of oppressed nations, it was never for the purpose of justifying her colonial activity, but to destroy ugly
competitors. Hence English colonial activity was perforce successful in part because of the most natural
reasons. For the less the Englishman ever gave a thought to such a notion as wanting to impose English culture
or English breeding on savages, the more sympathetic did such a government necessarily seem to savages who
were absolutely not hungry for culture. On top of this, to be sure, there was also the whip which one likewise
could all the sooner use, since thereby one did not run the danger of departing from a cultural mission. England
needed markets and sources of raw material for her commodities, and she secured these markets for herself
through power politics. This is the sense of English colonial policy. If later even England nevertheless mouthed
the word culture, it was only from a purely propagandistic viewpoint, so that she also could morally embroider
her own exceedingly sober actions somewhat. In reality the living conditions of the savages were a matter of
complete indifference to the English as long, and to the extent, that they did not affect the living conditions of
the English themselves. That later still other ideas, of a political prestige character, were linked with colonies of
the size of India is conceivable and understandable. But no one can dispute that, for instance, Indian interests
never determined English living conditions, but instead English living conditions determined India's. Likewise
it cannot be disputed that even in India the Englishman does not set up any cultural institution of any kind so
that, for instance, the natives may share in English culture, but rather so that, at best, the Englishman can draw
more benefits from his colonies. Or does one believe that England brought railroads to India just to put Indians
in possession of European transport possibilities, and not in order to make possible a better utilisation of the
colony as well as to guarantee an easier domination? If today in Egypt England again follows in the footsteps of
the Pharaohs and stores the water of the Nile by means of gigantic dams, it is certainly not done in order to
make the Earthly life of the poor fellah easier, but only in order to make English cotton independent of the
American monopoly. But these are all viewpoints which Germany never dared to think about openly in her
colonial policy. The English were the educators of the natives for England's interests, the German was the
teacher. That in the end the natives might have felt better with us than they did under the English would, for a
normal Englishman, be far from speaking for our kind of colonisation policy, but surely for that of the English
This policy of a gradual conquest of the world, in which economic power and political strength always went
hand in hand, conditioned England's position vis-a-vis other States. The more England grew into her colonial
policy, the more she required dominion over the seas, and the more she achieved dominion over the seas, the
more, in consequence of this, she became again a colonial power. But then also, the more jealously did she
finally begin to watch that nobody competed with her for dominion of the seas or of colonial possessions.
There is a very erroneous and widespread notion, especially in Germany, according to which England would
immediately fight against any European hegemony. As a matter of fact this is not correct. England actually
concerned herself very little with European conditions as long as no threatening world competitor arose from
them, so that she always viewed the threat as lying in a development which must one day cut across her
dominion over the seas and colonies.
There is no conflict of England in Europe in which the former did not have to protect her trade and overseas
interests. The struggles against Spain, Holland and later France had their ground not in the threatening military
might of these States as such, but only in the way this power was founded as well as in the effects of the same.
If Spain had not been an overseas power and thereby a power in competition with England, the latter would
presumably have taken little notice of Spain. The same applies to Holland. And even England's later gigantic
struggle against France was never waged against Napoleon's continental France, but rather against Napoleonic
France which viewed her continental policy only as a springboard and as a basis for greater, altogether non
continental aims. In general, France, given her geographical position, will be the power most threatening to
England. It was perhaps the only State in which even a limited continental development could contain dangers
for England's future. It is all the more noteworthy and instructive for us Germans that despite this, England
decided to enter the World War together with France. It is instructive because it proves that, despite all the
steadfast adherence to the great fundamental ideas of English foreign policy, momentary existing possibilities
are always taken into account there and never renounced merely because a threat to England could likewise rise
from one of them in the near or distant future. Our German God Punish England politicians are always of the
opinion, to wit, that a good relationship with England in the future must always founder on the fact that England
would never seriously give a thought to promoting Germany's interests by an alliance with her in order to see
Germany counterposed to her again one day as a dangerous and threatening power. Obviously England will not
conclude an alliance to promote Germany's interests, but only in order to foster British interests. But up to now
England has provided many examples that she could, very often, couple the representation of her interests with
the representation of the interests of other nations. And that then she had recourse to alliances, although
according to human prediction, even these were bound to change into later enmity. For divorces sooner or later
underlie political marriages, since, indeed, they do not serve the representation of the common interests of both
sides, but instead aim only with common means at promoting or defending the interests of two States which, as
such, are different, but which for the time being are not opposed.
England's relations vis-a-vis Prussia prove that she does not fundamentally oppose resistance to a European
great power of superior military importance, as long as the foreign policy aims of this power are manifestly of a
purely continental character. Or will one dispute that under Frederick The Great, Prussian military power was
beyond all doubt by far the strongest in Europe? Let no one believe that England did not fight against the
Prussia of that time only for the reason that, despite its military hegemony, she had to be numbered among the
smaller States in terms of territorial size in Europe. Not at all. For when England herself had previously fought
out her wars against the Dutch, Dutch territory in Europe was still considerably smaller than the Prussia of late
Frederickian time. And one could really not talk of a threatening hegemony or dominant power position on the
part of Holland. If nevertheless England pressed Holland hard in decades long struggles, the reason lay
exclusively only in the thwarting of England's dominion of the sea and trade by Holland, as well as in the
general colonial activity of the Dutch. Thus one should not deceive oneself: if the Prussian State had not so
exclusively dedicated itself to purely continental aims, it would at all times have had England as its sharpest
enemy regardless of the size of Prussia's purely military means in Europe, or the danger of a hegemonisation of
Europe by Prussia. Our national patriotic politicians, who do little thinking, have not seldom bitterly reproached
the successors of the great Elector for neglecting the overseas possessions brought into being by the Elector,
indeed for surrendering them and thereby having no interest in the maintenance and further construction of a
Brandenburg Prussian fleet. It was Prussia's good fortune, and later Germany's, that this was the case.
Nothing speaks so well for the outstanding statesmanship, especially of Frederick William I, than the fact that,
with all the scanty and surely infinitely limited means of the small Prussian State, he concentrated exclusively
on the promotion of the Land Army. Not only for the reason that through it this small State could maintain a
superior position in one weapon, but was thereby also spared England's enmity. A Prussia following in
Holland's footsteps would not have been able to fight the three Silesian Wars, with England as an added enemy
at her back. Aside from the fact that any achievement of a real naval standing by the small Prussian State would
necessarily miscarry in the long run in consequence of the territorial base of the motherland which was
exceedingly limited and unfavourably situated in a military sense. Even at that time it would have been child's
play for the English to rid themselves of a dangerous competitor in Europe through a general coalition war. In
general the fact that the later Prussia could develop out of little Brandenburg and in turn a new German Reich
out of the later Prussia was due only to that sagacious insight into the real power relations as well as into the
possibilities of the Prussia of that time, so that the Hohenzollerns, up to the time of Bismarck, limited
themselves almost exclusively to a strengthening of land power. It was the only clear, consequential policy. If
German Prussia and then later Germany in general wanted to go toward a future, it could only be guaranteed by
a supremacy on land which matched the English supremacy on the seas. It was Germany's misfortune that we
slowly moved away from this insight and built up our land power insufficiently and instead went over to a naval
policy whose end result had been inadequate anyway. Even the Germany of the post Bismarckian period could
not afford the luxury of creating and maintaining a superior armament on land and sea simultaneously. It has
been one of the most important principles of all times that a nation recognise which weapon is most necessary
and indispensable for the preservation of its existence, and then promote it to the extreme by staking all its
means on it. England recognised and followed this principle. For England, dominion of the seas was really the
substance of her existence. Even the most brilliant military periods on the mainland, the most glorious wars, the
most matchless military decisions, could not move the English to see in land power for England anything but
something ultimately subordinate, and to concentrate the whole strength of the nation on the maintenance of a
superior dominion of the seas. In Germany, to be sure, we let ourselves be swept along by the great colonial
waves of the nineteenth century, strengthened perhaps by romantic memories of the old Hansa as well as driven
by the peaceful economic policy, to shelve the exclusive promotion of the Land Army and to take up the
construction of a Fleet. This policy acquired its final expression in the proposition, as preposterous as it was
calamitous: Our future lies on the water. No, exactly to the contrary, it lay and lies for us in Europe on land, just
as exactly as the causes of our decline will always be of a purely continental character: our unfortunate
territorial and terrible military geographical position.
As long as Prussia limited herself to purely European aims in her foreign policy aspirations, she had no serious
danger to fear from England. The objection that nevertheless a pro French mood already prevailed in England in
the year 1870-71 is not relevant, and in any case signifies nothing at all. For at that time a pro German attitude
prevailed just as much in England; indeed France's action was branded as a sacrilege from the pulpit in English
churches. Moreover, it was the official attitude adopted which is decisive. For it is entirely obvious that France
will indeed have continual sympathies in a State of England's importance, all the more so as the influence of a
country's press is not seldom exerted through foreign capital. France has always known how to mobilise
sympathy for herself adroitly. Thus she has always played Paris as her most remarkable auxiliary weapon. But
this did not take place only in England, for instance, but even in Germany. In the very middle of the war, in the
year 70/71, a not small clique was to be found in Berlin society, indeed at the Berlin court, who made no bones
about their pro French sympathies. At any rate they knew how to postpone the bombardment of Paris for a long
time. And it is humanly understandable that English circles should have viewed German military success with
mixed joy. But in any case they could not move the official attitude of the British government toward an
intervention. Even the opinion that this is to be ascribed only to the fact that the rear was covered by Russia,
which Bismarck had assured, changes nothing. For this covering of the rear was thought of primarily against
Austria. If, however, England had given up her neutral attitude at that time, even Russia's covering of the rear
would not have been able to avert an immense conflagration. For then Austria would naturally have been
involved and, one way or the other, the success of the year 1871 would hardly have come to pass. As a matter of
fact Bismarck had a continual quiet fear of meddling by other States not only in the war, but even in the peace
negotiations. For what took place several years later vis-a-vis Russia, the intervention of other powers, [note 10]
could have been staged against Germany by England just as well.
The course of the anti German attitude of the English can be exactly followed. It parallels our development on
the seas, rises with our colonial activity to an overt antipathy, and finally ends up with our naval policy in a
frank hatred. One cannot take it amiss that in England a really solicitous State leadership scented a threatening
danger for the future in this development of a Folk as efficient as the Germans. We must never apply our
German sins of omission as a measure forjudging the actions of others. The frivolousness with which post
Bismarckian Germany allowed her position in terms of power politics to be threatened in Europe by France and
Russia, without undertaking any serious countermeasures, far from allows us to impute similar neglect to other
powers or to denounce them in moral indignation, if indeed they attend to the vital needs of their Folks better.
If pre War Germany had decided upon a continuance of the former Prussian continental policy instead of her
peaceful world and economic policy with its fateful repercussions, then first of all she could have raised her
land power to that superior height formerly enjoyed by the Prussian State, and secondly she need not have
feared an unconditional enmity with England. For this much is sure: if Germany had used all the enormous
means which she squandered on the Fleet for the strengthening of her Land Army, then her interests might have
been fought for in a different way, at least on the decisive European battlefields. And the Nation would have
been spared seeing a Land Army, worse than inadequately armed, slowly bleed to death against an
overwhelming world coalition, while the Navy, at least in its decisive combat units, rusted away in the harbours
in order finally to terminate its existence in a more than ignominious surrender. Let us not find excuses for the
leaders, but have the courage rather to admit that this lay in the very nature of such a weapon for us. For at the
same time the Field Army was pulled out of one battle and hurled into another without regard to losses and any
other hardships. The Land Army was really the German weapon, grown out of a hundred year tradition, but in
the end our Fleet was only a romantic plaything, a parade piece that was built for its own sake, and which again
for its own sake could not be risked. The whole benefit which it brought us is disproportionate to the terrible
enmity with which it saddled us.
If Germany had not taken this development, at the turn of the century we still could have reached an
understanding with England, which at that time was ready for one. To be sure, such an understanding would
have lasted only if had been accompanied by a fundamental shift in our foreign policy goal. Even at the turn of
the century Germany could have decided upon a resumption of the former Prussian continental policy, and,
together with England, prescribed the further development of world history. The objection of our eternal
temporisers and doubters that this would nevertheless have been uncertain is based on nothing but personal
opinions. English history up to now speaks against it in any case. By what right can such doubters presume that
Germany could not have played the same role as Japan? The stupid phrase that Germany thereby would have
hauled England's chestnuts out of the fire could just as much be applied to Frederick The Great who, ultimately,
on European battlefields, helped to facilitate England's conflicts with France outside Europe. It is almost stupid
to cite the further objection that nevertheless England one day would have gone against Germany. For then even
in such a case Germany's position, following a successful defeat of Russia in Europe, would be better than it
was at the start of the World War. On the contrary, if the Russian Japanese war had been fought in Europe
between Germany and Russia, Germany would have received such a purely moral increase in power that, for
the next thirty years, every other European power would have carefully weighed whether to break the peace and
let itself be incited into a coalition against Germany. But all these objections always spring from the mentality
of pre War Germany which itself as an opposition knew everything, but did nothing.
The fact is, at that time England made an approach to Germany, and there is the further fact that Germany for
her part could not make up her mind to emerge from the mentality of this eternal temporising and hesitation and
come to a clear stand. What Germany refused at that time was solicitously tended to by Japan, and thereby she
achieved the fame of a world power in a relatively cheap way.
If nobody in Germany wanted to do this under any circumstances, then we necessarily should have joined the
other side. Then we could have utilised the year 1904 or 1905 in a conflict with France, and had Russia at our
rear. But these temporisers and delayers wanted that just as little. Out of sheer caution, sheer hesitation and
sheer knowledge, they were never able to establish what they really wanted at any hour. And only therein lies
the superiority of English statesmanship, for that country is not ruled by such smartalecks who can never brace
themselves for an action, but by men who think naturally and for whom politics most surely is an art of the
possible, but who also take all possibilities by the forelock, and really strike with them.
Once Germany, however, had shunned such a fundamental understanding with England, which, as already
noted, would have made durable sense only if in Berlin a clear continental territorial political aim had been
arrived at, England began to organise the world resistance against the country threatening British interests as
regards her dominion of the seas.
The World War did not proceed as had been thought at the beginning in view of our Folk's military efficiency,
which was not presumed to be what it was even in England. To be sure, Germany was finally overcome, but
only after the American Union had made its appearance on the battlefield, and Germany had lost the support of
her rear in consequence of the internal collapse of the homeland. But the actual English war aim had not been
achieved thereby. Indeed, the German threat to English supremacy on the seas was eliminated, but the
American threat, with a considerably stronger base, took its place. In the future the greatest danger to England
would not be in Europe any more at all, but in North America. In Europe itself at this time, France is the State
that is most dangerous to England. Her military hegemony has an especially threatening significance for
England, in consequence of the geographical position which France occupies vis-a-vis England. Not only for
the reason that a great number of vitally important English centres seems to be almost defencelessly exposed to
French aerial attacks, but even by means of artillery fire a number of English cities can be reached from the
French coast. Indeed, if modern technology succeeds in producing a considerable increase in the firing power of
the heaviest artillery, then a bombardment of London from the French mainland does not lie beyond the limits
of the possible. But it is even more important that a French submarine war against England would possess a
wholly different basis than the earlier German one during the World War. France's broad encampment on two
seas would make it very difficult to carry out sealing off measures which could be easily successful vis-a-vis the
confined triangle of water.
Whoever in presentday Europe tries to find natural enemies against England will always chance upon France
and Russia: France as a power with continental political aims, which in truth, however, are only a cover for very
widely demarcated intentions of a general international political character; Russia as a threatening enemy of
India and the possessor of oil sources which today have the same importance once possessed by iron and coal
mines in past centuries.
If England herself remains true to her great world political aims, her potential opponents will be France and
Russia in Europe, and, in the other parts of the world, especially the American Union in the future.
n contrast no inducement exists to make eternal England's enmity against Germany. Otherwise English foreign
policy would be determined by motives that lie far beyond all real logic, and therefore could have a decisive
influence on the determination of the political relations among nations perhaps only in the head of a German
professor. No, in the future, in England positions in accordance with purely expedient points of view will be
taken up just as soberly as has happened for three hundred years. And just as for three hundred years allies
could become England's enemies and enemies again become allies, so will this also be the case in the future as
long as general and particular necessities call for it. If, however, Germany comes to a fundamentally new
political orientation which no longer contradicts England's sea and trade interests, but spends itself in
continental aims, then a logical ground for England's enmity, which would then be just hostility for hostility's
sake, would no longer exist. For even the European balance of power interests England only as long as it
hinders the development of a world trade and sea power that may threaten England. There is no foreign policy
leadership at all which is less determined by doctrines that bear no relation to life's realities than the English. A
world empire does not come into being by means of a sentimental or purely theoretical policy.
Hence the sober perception of British interests will be determining for English foreign policy in the future too.
Whoever cuts across these interests will thereby also be England's enemy in the future. Whoever does not touch
them, his existence will also not be touched by England. And whoever can be useful to her from time to time
will be invited on England's side regardless of whether he had been an enemy in the past or perhaps can again
become one in the future.
Only a bourgeois national German politician can manage to refuse a useful alliance for the reason that later,
perhaps, it can end in enmity. To impute such an idea to an Englishman is an insult to the political instinct of
Naturally if Germany does not set herself any political goal, and we muddle through planlessly from one day to
the other as up to now without any guiding thought; or if this goal lies in the restoration of the borders and
territorial conditions of the year 1914 and thereby in the end lands into a policy of world trade, colonisation and
naval power, England's future enmity with us will indeed be certain. Then Germany will suffocate economically
under her Dawes burdens, politically decay under her Locarno treaties, and increasingly weaken racially in
order finally to terminate her life as a second Holland or a second Switzerland in Europe. This can certainly be
achieved by our bourgeois national and patriotic armchair politicians; for this all they need do is continue
further along their present path of phrase mongering, shooting off their mouths in protests, making war on all
Europe, and then crawling cravenly into a hole before every act. This then is what the national bourgeois
patriotic policy of Germany's resurgence means. Thus, just as our bourgeoisie in the course of barely sixty years
has known how to degrade and to compromise the national concept, so in its decline does it destroy the
beautiful concept of the Fatherland by degrading it also to a mere phrase in its patriotic leagues.
To be sure, yet another important factor emerges in regard to England's attitude toward Germany: the decisive
influence world Jewry also possesses in England. Just as surely as Anglosaxonism itself can overcome its war
psychosis vis-a-vis Germany, world Jewry just as surely will neglect nothing to keep the old enmities alive so as
to prevent a pacification of Europe from materialising, and thereby enable it to set its Bolshevist destructive
tendencies into motion amid the confusion of a general unrest.
We cannot discuss world policy without taking this most terrible power into account. Therefore I will deal
especially with this problem further in this book.
ITALY AS AN ALLY
Certainly if England is under no compulsion to maintain her wartime enmity toward Germany forever on
grounds of principle, Italy has even less grounds to do so. Italy is the second State in Europe that must not be
fundamentally hostile to Germany. Indeed, her foreign policy aims need not cross with Germany's at all. On the
contrary, with no other State does Germany have perhaps more interests in common than precisely with Italy,
At the same time that Germany tried to achieve a new national unification, the same process also took place in
Italy. To be sure, the Italians lacked a central power of gradually growing, and ultimately towering, importance,
such as Germany in the making possessed in Prussia. But as German unification was primarily opposed by
France and Austria as true enemies, so likewise did the Italian unification movement also have to suffer most
under these two powers. The chief cause, of course, lay with the Habsburg State which must have and did have a
vital interest in the maintenance of Italy's internal dismemberment. Since a State of the size of Austria-Hungary
is unthinkable without direct access to the sea, and the only territory which could be considered for this — at
least in regard to its cities — was inhabited by Italians, Austria necessarily disapprovingly opposed the rise of a
united Italian State for fear of the possible loss of this territory in case of the founding of an Italian national
State. At that time even the boldest political aim of the Italian Folk could lie only in its national unification. This
then perforce also conditioned the foreign policy attitude. Hence as Italian unification [that through Savoys]
slowly took shape, Cavour, its brilliant great statesman, utilised all possibilities which could serve this particular
aim. Italy owes the possibility of her unification to an extraordinarily cleverly chosen alliance policy. Its aim
was primarily to bring about the paralysis of the chief enemy of unification, Austria-Hungary, indeed finally to
induce this State to leave the north Italian provinces. Withal, even after the conclusion of the provisional
unification of Italy, there were more than 800000 Italians in Austria-Hungary alone. The national aim of the
further unification of people of Italian nationality was at first bound to undergo a postponement when, for the
first time, there began to arise the dangers of an Italian French estrangement. Italy decided to enter the Triple
Alliance, chiefly in order to gain time for her inner consolidation.
The World War at last brought Italy into the camp of the Entente for reasons that I have already discussed.
Thereby Italian unity had been carried a powerful step forward. Even today, however, it is not yet completed.
For the Italian State, though, the great event was the elimination of the hated Habsburg empire. To be sure, its
place was taken by a Southern Slav structure which already presented a danger hardly less great for Italy on the
basis of general national viewpoints.
For just as little as the bourgeois national and purely border policy conception in Germany could in the long run
satisfy our Folk's vital needs, equally little could the purely bourgeois national unification policy of the Italian
State satisfy the Italian Folk.
Like the German Folk, the Italian Folk lives on a small soil surface which in part is scantily fertile. For centuries,
indeed many centuries, this overpopulation has forced Italy to a permanent export of people. Even though a great
part of these emigrants, as seasonal labourers, return to Italy in order to live there on their savings, this leads
more than ever to a further aggravation of the situation. Not only is the population problem not solved thereby,
but it is sharpened rather. Just as Germany through her export of goods fell into a state of dependence on the
ability, potentiality and willingness of other powers and countries to receive these goods, likewise and exactly
did Italy with her export of people. In both cases a closing of the receiving market, resulting from events of any
kind whatsoever, perforce led to catastrophic consequences within these countries.
Hence Italy's attempt to master the problem of sustenance through an increase of her industrial activity cannot
lead to any ultimate success because, at the outset, the lack of natural raw materials in the Italian Motherland
robs her in great measure of the required ability to compete.
Just as in Italy the conceptions of a formal bourgeois national policy are being overcome and a Folkish feeling of
responsibility is taking its place, likewise will this State also be forced to deviate from its former political
conceptions in order to turn to a territorial policy on a grand scale.
The shore basins of the Mediterranean Sea constitute, and hence remain, the natural area of Italian expansion.
The more presentday Italy departs from her former unification policy and goes over to an imperialist policy, the
more will she fall into the ways of ancient Rome, not out of any presumption to power, but out of deep, internal
necessities. If today Germany seeks soil in Eastern Europe, this is not the sign of an extravagant hunger for
power, but only the consequence of her need for territory. And if today Italy seeks to enlarge her influence on
the shores of the Mediterranean basin and ultimately aims to establish colonies, it is also only the release ensuing
from sheer necessity, out of a natural defence of interests. If the German pre War policy had not been struck with
total blindness, it would necessarily have supported and fostered this development with every means. Not only
because it would have meant a natural strengthening of an ally, but because it might perhaps have offered the
only possibility of drawing Italian interests away from the Adriatic Sea and thereby lessened the sources of
irritation with Austria-Hungary. Such a policy, in addition, would have stiffened the most natural enmity which
can ever exist, namely that between Italy and France, the repercussions of which would have strengthened the
Triple Alliance in a favourable sense.
It was Germany's misfortune that at that time not only did the Reich leadership flatly fail in this respect, but that,
above all, public opinion — led on by insane German national patriots and foreign policy dreamers — took a
stand against Italy. Especially, moreover, for the reason that Austria discovered something unfriendly about the
Italian operation in Tripoli. At that time, however, it appertained to the political wisdom of our national
bourgeoisie to back every stupidity or baseness of Viennese diplomacy, indeed if possible to undertake stupid
and base acts itself, in order thereby to demonstrate the inner harmony and solidarity of this cordial alliance
before the world in the best possible way.
Now Austria-Hungary is wiped out. But Germany has even less cause than before to regret a development of
Italy which one day must necessarily proceed at the expense of France. For the more presentday Italy discovers
her highest Folkish tasks, and the more, accordingly, she goes over to a territorial policy conceived along Roman
lines, the more must she run into the opposition of her greatest competitor in the Mediterranean Sea, France.
France will never tolerate Italy's becoming the leading power in the Mediterranean. She will try to prevent this,
either through her own strength, or through a system of alliances. France will lay obstacles in the path of Italy's
development wherever possible, and finally she will not shrink from recourse to violence. Even the so called
kinship of these two Latin nations will change nothing on this score, for it is no closer than the kinship between
England and Germany.
On top of that, in proportion as France declines in her own Folk's power, this State proceeds to the opening up of
her reservoir of niggers. Thus a danger of unimaginable proportions draws near for Europe. The idea of French
niggers, who can contaminate white blood, on the Rhine as cultural guards against Germany, is so monstrous
that it would have been regarded as completely impossible only a few decades ago. Surely France itself would
suffer the greatest harm through this blood pollution, but only if the other European nations remain conscious of
the value of their white race. Viewed in purely military terms, France can very well supplement her European
formations, and, as the World War has shown, also commit them effectively. Finally, this completely non French
nigger army indeed vouchsafes a certain defence against communist demonstrations, since utter subordination in
all situations will be easier to preserve in an army which is not at all linked by blood to the French Folk. This
development entails its greatest danger for Italy first of all. If the Italian Folk wants to shape its future according
to its own interests, it will ultimately have nigger armies, mobilised by France, as its enemy. Thus it cannot in
the least lie in Italy's interest to be in a state of enmity with Germany, something which even in the best of cases
cannot make a profitable contribution to the shaping of Italian life in the future. On the contrary, if any State can
finally bury war enmity, this State is Italy. Italy has no inherent interest in a further oppression of Germany if,
for the future, both States want to attend to their most natural tasks.
Bismarck had already perceived this fortunate circumstance. More than once did he confirm the complete
parallel between German and Italian interests. It was he who even then pointed out that the Italy of the future
must seek her development on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, and it was he who further ascertained the
harmony of German and Italian interests by stressing that only France could think of disturbing this shaping of
Italian life, whereas Germany was bound to welcome it from her viewpoint. Actually in the whole future he sees
no necessary cause for an estrangement, let alone enmity, between Italy and Germany. If Bismarck rather than
Bethmann Hollweg had guided Germany's destiny before the World War, indeed, even this terrible enmity,
incurred only on account of Austria, would never have come to pass.
Moreover, with Italy as with England, it is a positive fact that a continental expansion of Germany in Northern
Europe is no threat, and thereby can give no cause for an estrangement by Italy against Germany. Conversely,
for Italy the most natural interests speak against any further increase of French hegemony in Europe.
Hence Italy, above all, would warrant consideration in terms of an alliance relation with Germany.
The enmity with France has already become obvious ever since Fascism in Italy brought a new idea of the State
and with it a new will to the life of the Italian Folk. Therefore France, through a whole system of alliances, is not
only trying to strengthen herself for a possible conflict with Italy, but also to hamper and separate Italy's possible
friends. The French aim is clear. A French system of States is to be built that reaches from Paris via Warsaw,
Prague, Vienna, up to Belgrade. The attempt to draw Austria into this system is in no way as hopeless as it may
seem at first sight. In view of the dominating character of the influence which Vienna with its two million
inhabitants exerts over the rest of Austria, which encompasses only six million people, this country's policy will
always be determined primarily by Vienna. The fact that an alliance with Paris is far more likely as such than
one with Italy lies in the cosmopolitan nature of Vienna which has been revealed even more pointedly in the last
decade. This was already taken care of by the manipulation of public opinion guaranteed by the Vienna press.
But this activity threatens to become especially effective since this press, with the help of the clamour over the
Southern Tyrol, has also succeeded in stirring up the completely instinctless bourgeois national province against
Italy. Thus a danger of an incommensurable extent draws near. For the Germans, more than any other Folk, can
be brought to the most incredible, in reality truly suicidal, decisions by an agitational press campaign conducted
consistently over many years.
If, however, France succeeds in fitting Austria into the chain of her friendship, Italy one day will be forced into a
two front war, or she must again renounce a real representation of the interests of the Italian Folk. In both cases
for Germany there is the danger that a possible German ally is finally excluded for an unpredictable period of
time, and that France thus increasingly becomes the master of Europe's fate.
Let no one indulge in any illusions as to what this entails for Germany. Our bourgeois national border politicians
and protesters from the patriotic leagues will then have their hands full in order again, in the name of national
honour, to eliminate the traces of the mistreatments which they would have to endure from France, thanks to
their farsighted policy.
Since the National Socialist Movement concerns itself with ideas of foreign policy, I have tried to educate it to
become a bearer of a clear foreign policy aim by a consideration of all the arguments discussed. It is unjust to
raise the reproach that this is primarily the task of the Government, in a State, first of all, the official
governments of which come from the bosom of parties who neither have any cognisance of Germany nor want a
happy future for this Germany. Since those who were responsible for arranging the November crime have
become qualified to govern, it is no longer the interests of the German Nation which are represented, but instead
those of the wrongly acting parties. In general we cannot very well expect the promotion of Germany's vital
needs by people to whom the Fatherland and the Nation are but means to an end, and which, if necessary, they
shamelessly sacrifice for their own interests. Indeed, the instinct of self preservation of these people and parties,
so often visible, in truth by itself speaks against any resurgence of the German Nation, since the freedom
struggle for German honour perforce would mobilise forces which must lead to the fall and destruction of the
former defilers of German honour. There is no such thing as a struggle for freedom without a general national
resurgence. But a resurgence of the national conscience and the national honour is unthinkable without first
bringing those responsible for the previous degradation to justice. The naked instinct of self preservation will
force these degenerate elements and their parties to thwart all steps that could lead to a real resurrection of our
Folk. And the seeming insanity of many acts of these Herostrats of our Folk, once we properly gauge the inner
motives, becomes a planned, adroit, albeit infamous and contemptible, action.
In a time such as this when public life acquires its shape from parties of this kind and is represented solely by
people of inferior character, it is the duty of a national reform Movement to go its own way even in foreign
policy which some day, according to all human prediction and reason, must lead to the success and happiness of
the Fatherland. Hence, so far as the reproach of conducting a policy that does not correspond to official foreign
policy comes from the Marxist democratic Centre camp, it can be set aside with the contempt it deserves. But if
bourgeois national and so called Fatherland circles raise it, this is really only the expression and the symbol of
the state of mind of professional joiners which exerts itself only in protests, and simply cannot seriously grasp
that another movement possesses the indestructible will ultimately to become a power, and that in a prevision of
this fact it already undertakes the necessary education of this power.
Since the year 1920 I have tried with all means and most persistently to accustom the National Socialist
Movement to the idea of an alliance among Germany, Italy and England. This was very difficult, especially in
the first years after the War, since the God Punish England standpoint, first and foremost, still robbed our Folk
of any capacity for clear and sober thinking in the sphere of foreign policy, and continued to hold it prisoner.
The situation of the young Movement was infinitely difficult even vis-a-vis Italy, especially since an
unprecedented reorganisation of the Italian Folk set in under the leadership of the brilliant statesman Benito
Mussolini, which drew the protest of all the States directed by Freemasonry. For whereas up to the year 1922 the
fabricators of official German opinion took altogether no notice of the sufferings of those parts of our Folk
severed from Germany through their crimes, they now suddenly began to honour the Southern Tyrol with their
attention. With all the means of a cunning journalism and a mendacious dialectic, the Southern Tyrol problem
was blown up into a question of extraordinary importance so that, in the end, Italy incurred a proscription in
Germany and Austria conferred on none other of the victor States. If the National Socialist Movement honestly
wanted to represent its foreign policy mission, sustained by the conviction of the unconditional necessity of the
same, it could not draw back from the struggle against this system of lies and confusion. Thus at the same time it
could not count on any allies, but instead had to be guided by the idea that one should sooner renounce a cheap
popularity rather than act against a perceived truth, a necessity that lay before one, and the voice of one's
conscience. And even if one would thereby be defeated, this would still be more honourable than to participate
in a crime that had been seen through.
When in the year 1920 I pointed to the possibility of a later association with Italy, all the prerequisites thereto, at
least at first, actually seemed to be lacking. Italy was in the circle of the victor States, and shared in the actual or
merely presumed advantages of this situation. In the years 1919 and 1920 there seemed no prospect at all that the
inner structure of the Entente would loosen in any predictable time. The powerful world coalition still placed a
great value on showing that it was a self sufficient guarantor of the victory and thus also of the peace. The
difficulties which had already come to light in connection with the drawing up of the peace treaties came all the
less to the consciousness of a broad public opinion since the directors of an adroitly staged production knew how
to preserve the impression of complete unity, at least outwardly. This common action was based just as much on
the public opinion which had been created by a generally homogeneous war propaganda as it was on the still
insecure fear of the German giant. Only slowly did the outside world get a glimpse of the dimensions of
Germany's inner decay. A further reason contributed to the seemingly almost indissoluble solidarity of the victor
States: the hope of the individual States that they would thus not be overlooked when the time came to share the
spoils. Finally there was the further fear that if at that time a State should actually withdraw, Germany's fate,
nevertheless, would have taken no other course, and then perhaps France alone would be the sole beneficiary of
our collapse. For in Paris they naturally never gave a thought to bringing about a change in the attitude toward
Germany which had been set in motion during the War. For me the peace is the continuation of the war. With
this statement, white haired old Clemenceau expressed the French Folk's real intentions.
The complete planlessness of German intentions confronted this, at least seeming, inner solidity of the coalition
of victors, the immovable aim of which, inspired by France, was the complete annihilation of Germany even
after the event. Next to the contemptible villainy of those who in their country, against all truth and against their
own conscience, put the blame for the war on Germany and insolently deduced a justification for the enemy's
extortions therefrom, stood a partly intimidated, partly uncertain national side which believed that now after the
ensuing collapse it could help matters by means of the most painful possible reconstruction of the nation's past.
We lost the war in consequence of a lack of national passion against our enemies. The opinion in national circles
was that we must replace this harmful deficiency and anchor this hatred against the former enemies in the peace.
At the same time it was noteworthy that, from the start, this hatred was concentrated more against England, and
later Italy, than against France. Against England because, thanks to the Bethmann Hollwegian soporific policy,
nobody had believed in a war with England up to the last hour. Therefore her entry into the war was viewed as
an extraordinarily shameful crime against loyalty and faith. In the case of Italy the hatred was even more
understandable in view of the political thoughtlessness of our German Folk. They had been so imprisoned in the
mist and fog of the Triple Alliance by official government circles that even Italy's non intervention for the
benefit of Austria-Hungary and Germany was viewed as a breach of loyalty. And they saw a boundless perfidy
in the later joining up of the Italian Folk with our enemies. This accumulated hatred was discharged in the
typically bourgeois national fulmination and battle cry: God Punish England. Since God is just as much on the
side of the stronger and the more determined, as well as preferably on the side of those who are cleverer, he
manifestly refused to inflict this punishment. Nevertheless, at least during the war, whipping up of our national
passion by every means was not only allowed but obviously called for. It was only a hindrance in that we were
blinded by it to the real actualities, although the passion was never fanned too high among us. In politics there is
no standpoint of contrariness, and therefore, even during the War, it was wrong to draw no other consequences,
especially from Italy's entry into the world coalition, except those of a flaming anger and indignation. For, on the
contrary, we should have had the duty then especially to keep on reexamining the possibilities of the situation in
order to come to those decisions that might have warranted consideration for saving the threatened German
Nation. For with Italy's entry into the front of the Entente, an extraordinary aggravation of the war situation was
unavoidable, not only in consequence of the increase in terms of arms which the Entente acquired, but much
more rather in consequence of the moral strengthening which necessarily lay in the emergence of such a power
on the side of the world coalition being formed, especially for France. In terms of duty, the Nation's political
leaders at that time perforce should have decided, cost what it may, to put an end to the two front and three front
war. Germany was not responsible for the further maintenance of the corrupt, slovenly Austrian State. Nor did
the German soldier fight for the family power policy of the hereditary House Of Habsburg. This at best lay in the
mind of our non combatant hurrahl-shouters, but not in that of those at the front shedding their blood. The
sufferings and hardships of the German musketeers were already immeasurable in the year 1915. These
sufferings could be demanded for the future and the preservation of our German Folk, but not for the salvation of
the Habsburg big power megalomania. It was a monstrous idea to let millions of German soldiers bleed in a
hopeless war only so that a dynasty could preserve a State, the most private dynastic interests of which for
centuries had been anti German. This insanity will become completely understandable to us in its entirety only if
we keep in view that the best German blood had to be shed so that, in the most favourable case, the Habsburgs
might again have another chance to denationalise the German Folk in peacetime. We not only had to undertake
the most monstrous bloodshed on two fronts for this madness, which screamed to heaven, no, we were even duty
bound again and again to fill the holes which treason and corruption had torn in our worthy ally's front with
German flesh and blood. And thereby we made this sacrifice for a dynasty which itself was ready to leave its all
sacrificing ally in the lurch at the first opportunity which offered itself. And who indeed later did just this. To be
sure, our bourgeois national Fatherland patriots speak as little of the betrayal as they do of the continuous
betrayal of the Austrian troops of Slavic nationality allied with us, who went over to the enemy's side in whole
regiments and brigades, in order finally in their own legions to join the fight against those who had been dragged
into this dreadful misfortune by the operations of their State. Moreover, by itself, Austria-Hungary would never
have participated in a war which might have involved Germany. That here or there some perhaps really believed
to gain protection from the Triple Alliance, grounded in reciprocity, can be ascribed only to the boundless
ignorance of Austrian conditions which generally prevailed in Germany. The worst disappointment for Germany
would have materialised had the World War broken out on account of Germany. The Austrian State, with its
Slav majority and with its Habsburg Ruling House, fundamentally anti German and anti Reich oriented, would
never have taken up arms to defend and assist Germany against all the rest of the world, as Germany stupidly
did. As a matter of fact, vis-a-vis Austria-Hungary, Germany had but one duty to fulfil, namely: to save the
German element of this State by all means, and to eliminate the most degenerate, most guilt laden dynasty that
the German Folk ever had to endure.
For Germany, Italy's entry into the World War perforce should have been the occasion for a fundamental
revision of her attitude vis-a-vis Austria-Hungary. It is not a political act, let alone an expression of the sagacity
and competence of political leaders, in such a case to find no other answer than sullen indignation and impotent
rage. Such a thing is usually harmful even in private life, but in political life it is worse than a crime. It is an act
And even if this attempt at a change of the former German attitude had led to no success, it at least would have
absolved the nation's political leadership from the guilt of not having tried it. In any case, after Italy's entry into
the World War, Germany should have tried to put an end to the two front war. She should then have striven for a
separate peace with Russia, not only on the basis of a renunciation of any utilisation of the successes in the east
already achieved by German arms, but even, if necessary, of a sacrifice of Austria-Hungary. Only the complete
dissociation of German policy from the task of saving the Austrian State and its exclusive concentration on the
task of helping the German Folk could still afford a possibility of victory, according to human appraisals.
Moreover, with the demolition of Austria-Hungary, the incorporation of nine million German Austrians into the
Reich as such would have been a more worthwhile success before history and for our Folk's future than the gain,
doubtful in its consequences, of a few French coal and iron mines. But it must be stressed again and again that
the task — even of a German foreign policy that is only bourgeois national — should not have been the
preservation of the Habsburg State, but exclusively the salvation of the German Nation, including the nine
million Germans in Austria. Otherwise nothing else at all, indeed absolutely nothing else.
As is known, the reaction of the Reich's leaders to the situation created by Italy's entry into the World War was
quite different. They tried more than ever to save the Austrian State with its deserting Slavic brothers of the
alliance by staking German blood in a still greater measure, and, in the homeland, by calling down heaven's
revenge on the faithless erstwhile ally. In order to cut themselves off from any possibility of ending the two front
war, they let the artful and cunning Vienna diplomacy induce them to found the Polish State. Thereby any hope
of arriving at an understanding with Russia, which naturally could have been obtained at the expense of Austria-
Hungary, was shrewdly prevented by the Habsburgs. Thus the German soldier from Bavaria, Pomerania,
Westphalia, Thiiringia and East Prussia, from Brandenburg, Saxony and from the Rhine, was given the high
honour, in the most terrible, bloody battles of world history, to sacrifice his life by the hundreds of thousands,
not for the salvation [formation] of the German Nation, but for the formation of a Polish State to which, in case
of a favourable outcome of the World War, the Habsburgs would have given a representative, and which then
would have been an eternal enemy for Germany.
Bourgeois national State policy. But if this reaction to the Italian step had already been an unforgivable
absurdity during the War, the preservation of this emotional reaction to the Italian step after the War was a still
greater, capital stupidity.
To be sure, Italy was in the coalition of victor States even after the War, and hence also on the side of France.
But this was natural, for Italy had certainly not entered the War out of pro French feelings. The determining
force which drove the Italian Folk to it was exclusively the hatred against Austria and the visible possibility of
being able to benefit their own Italian interests. This was the reason for the Italian step, and not any kind of
fantastic emotional feeling for France. As a German one can be deeply pained that Italy took far reaching steps
now that the collapse of her hated centuries old enemy has taken place, but one must not let it deprive his mind
of sound reason. Fate had changed. Once Austria had more than 800000 Italians under her rule, and now 200000
Austrians fell under Italy's rule. The cause of our pain is that these 200000 who interest us are of German
Neither the future aims of a national nor of a Folkishly conceived Italian policy are fulfilled by the elimination
of the eternally latent Austrian Italian conflict. On the contrary, the enormous increase of the self consciousness
and power consciousness of the Italian Folk by the war, and especially by Fascism, will only increase its
strength to pursue greater aims. Thus the natural conflicts of interest between Italy and France will increasingly
appear. We could have counted on that and hoped for it as early as the year 1920. As a matter of fact, the first
signs of an internal disharmony between the two States were already visible at that time. Whereas the Southern
Slav instincts for a further curtailment of the Austrian German element were sure of France's undivided
sympathy, the Italian attitude already at the time of the liberation of Carinthia from the Slavs was at least very
well disposed toward the German element. This inner shift vis-a-vis Germany was also displayed in the attitude
of the Italian commissions in Germany itself, most pointedly on the occasion of the struggles in Upper Silesia.
At any rate, at that time one could already discern the beginning of an inner estrangement, albeit only faint at
first, between the two Latin nations. According to all human logic and reason, and on the basis of all the
experiences of history hitherto, this estrangement must increasingly deepen and one day end in an overt struggle.
Whether she likes it or not, Italy will have to fight for her State's existence and future against France, just as
Germany itself. It is not necessary for this that France always be in the foreground of operations. But she will
pull the wires of those whom she has cleverly brought into a state of financial and military dependence on her, or
with whom she seems to be linked by parallel interests. The Italian French conflict can just as well begin in the
Balkans, as it may find its end on the lowlands of Lombardy.
In view of this compelling probability of a later enmity of Italy with France, already in the year 1920 this very
State came under consideration primarily as a future ally for Germany. The probability increased to certainty
when, with the victory of Fascism, the weak Italian Government, which ultimately was subject to international
influences, was eliminated, and a regime took its place which had nailed the exclusive representation of Italian
interests as a slogan on its banners. A weak Italian democratic bourgeois government, by disregarding Italy's real
future tasks, could perhaps have maintained an artificial relation with France. But a nationally conscious and
responsible Italian regime, never. The struggle of the Third Rome for the future of the Italian Folk acquired its
historic declaration on the day when the FASCES became the symbol of the Italian State. Thus one of the two
Latin nations will have to leave its place in the Mediterranean Sea, whereas the other will acquire supremacy as
the prize of this struggle.
As a nationally conscious and rationally thinking German, I firmly hope and strongly wish that this State may be
Italy and not France.
Thereby my attitude toward Italy will be induced by motives of future expectations, and not by sterile
reminiscences of the War.
The standpoint, Declarations Of War Are Accepted Here, as an inscription on troop transports, was a good sign
of the victorious confidence of the peerless Old Army. As a political proclamation, however, it is a mad
stupidity. Today it is even more mad if one takes the position that, for Germany, no ally can warrant
consideration which stood on the enemy's side in the World War and shared in the spoils of the World War at
our expense. If Marxists, Democrats and Centrists raise such a thought to a leitmotif of their political activity,
this is clearly for the reason that this most degenerate coalition does not desire a resurgence of the German
Nation ever. But if national bourgeois and Fatherland circles take over such ideas, then that's the limit. For let
one name any power at all which could possibly be an ally in Europe and which has not enriched itself
territorially at our expense or that of our allies of that time. On the basis of this standpoint, France is excluded
from the outset because she stole Alsace-Lorraine and wants to steal the Rhineland, Belgium because it
possesses Eupen and Malmedy, England because, even if she does not possess our colonies, at least she
administers them in large part. And any child knows what this means in the life of nations. Denmark is excluded
because she took North Schleswig, Poland because she is in possession of West Prussia and Upper Silesia and
parts of East Prussia, Czechoslovakia because she oppresses almost four million Germans, Rumania because she
likewise has annexed more than a million Germans, Yugoslavia because she has nearly 600000 Germans, and
Italy because today she calls the Southern Tyrol her own.
Thus, for our national bourgeois and patriotic circles, the alliance possibilities are altogether impossible. But
then they do not need them at all. For through the flood of their protests, and the rumble of their hurrahs, they
will in part stifle the resistance of the other parts of the world, and in part overthrow it. And then, without any
allies, indeed without any weapons, supported only by the clamourousness of their glib tongue, they will retrieve
the stolen territories, let England subsequently still be punished by God, but chastise Italy and deliver her to the
deserved contempt of the whole world — so far as up to this point they have not been hanged on lamp posts by
their own momentary foreign policy allies, the Bolshevist and Marxist Jews.
At the same time, it is noteworthy that our national circles of bourgeois and patriotic origin never at all realise
that the strongest proof of the fallacy of their attitude toward foreign policy lies in the concurrence of Marxists,
Democrats and Centrists, above all especially in the concurrence of Jewry. But one must know our German
bourgeoisie well in order immediately to know why this is so. They are all infinitely happy at least to have found
an issue in which the presumed unity of the German Folk seems to be effected. No matter if this concerns a
stupidity. Despite this, it is infinitely comforting for a courageous bourgeois and Fatherland politician to be able
to talk in tones of national struggle without receiving a punch on the jaw for it from the nearest communist. That
they are spared this only for the reason that their political conception is just as sterile in national terms as it is
valuable in Jewish Marxist terms, either does not occur to these people, or it is concealed in the deepest recesses
of their being. The extent which the corruption of lies and cowardice has assumed among us is something
When in the year 1920 I undertook to orient the foreign policy position of the Movement toward Italy, I at first
ran into complete incomprehension on the part of national circles, as well as in so called Fatherland circles. It
was simply incomprehensible to these people how, contrary to the general duty of continual protests, one could
formulate a political idea which — taken practically — signified the intrinsic liquidation of one of the enmities of
the World War. In general, national circles found it beyond comprehension that I did not want to place the main
weight of national activity on protests which were trumpeted to the skies in front of the Feldherrnhalle in
Miinchen, or somewhere else, now against Paris, then again against London or also against Rome, but wanted to
place it instead on the elimination first within Germany of those responsible for the collapse. A flaming protest
demonstration against Paris also took place in Miinchen on the occasion of the Paris diktat, which, to be sure,
must have caused M. Clemenceau little worry. But it induced me to elaborate with all vigour the National
Socialist attitude in opposition to this protest mania. France had only done what every German could know and
perforce should have known. Were I myself a Frenchman I would have supported Clemenceau as a matter of
course. To bark permanently at an overpowering adversary from a distance is as undignified as it is idiotic. On
the contrary, the national opposition of the Fatherland circles should have bared its teeth at those in Berlin who
were responsible for, and guilty of, the terrible catastrophe of our collapse. To be sure, it was more comfortable
to scream against Paris curses which could not be actualised in view of the factual conditions, than to stand up
against Berlin with deeds.
This also applied especially to the representatives of that Bavarian government policy, who, to be sure,
sufficiently exhibit the nature of their brilliance by the facts of their success up to now. For the very men who
continually asserted the desire to preserve Bavaria's sovereignty, and who at the same time also had in view
maintenance of the right to conduct foreign policy, should primarily have been obliged to put forth a possible
foreign policy of such sort that Bavaria, thereby, could of necessity have obtained leadership of a real national
opposition in Germany conceived in its grand aspects. In view of the complete inconsistency of Reich policy or
of the deliberate intention to ignore all real avenues of success, it is precisely the Bavarian State that should have
risen to the role of spokesman for a foreign policy which, according to human prediction, might one day have
brought an end to Germany's dreadful isolation.
But even in these circles they confronted the foreign policy conception of an association with Italy, as espoused
by me, with a complete and stupid thoughtlessness. Instead of thus rising in a bold way to the role of spokesmen
and guardians of the highest national German interests for the future, they preferred, from time to time, with one
eye blinking toward Paris while the other was raised up to heaven, to asseverate their loyalty to the Reich on the
one hand, and on the other their determination nevertheless to save Bavaria by letting the fires of Bolshevism
burn out in the north. Yes, indeed, the Bavarian State has entrusted the representation of its sovereign rights to
intellectual characters of a wholly special greatness.
In view of such a general mentality, it should surprise nobody that, from the very first day, my foreign policy
conception encountered, if not direct rejection, at least a total lack of understanding. Frankly speaking, I
expected nothing else at that time. I still took account of the general war psychosis, and strove only to instil a
sober world view of foreign policy into my own Movement.
At that time, I did not yet have to endure any kind of overt attacks on account of my Italian policy. The reason
for this probably lay, on the one hand, in the fact that for the moment it was held to be completely devoid of
danger, and on the other that Italy herself likewise had a government subject to international influences. Indeed,
in the background it was perhaps even hoped that this Italy could succumb to the Bolshevist plague, and then she
would be highly welcome as an ally, at least for our Left circles.
Besides, on the Left at that time, one could not very well take a position against the elimination of war enmity,
since in this very camp they were anyhow making constant efforts to extirpate the hateful, demeaning, and — for
Germany — so unjustified feeling of hatred born of the War. It would not have been easy to launch a criticism
against me from these circles over a foreign policy conception, which, as a prerequisite for its realisation, would
after all have caused at least the removal of the war hatred between Germany and Italy.
I must, however, stress once more that perhaps the main reason why I found so little positive resistance lay for
my enemies in the presumed harmlessness, enviability and thereby also the non dangerous character of my
This situation changed almost in one stroke when Mussolini had begun the March on Rome. As if by a magic
word, the running fire of poisoning and slander against Italy by the entire Jewish press began from this hour on.
And only after the year 1922 was the Southern Tyrol question raised and made into a pivotal point of German
Italian relations, whether the Southern Tyroleans themselves wanted it so or not. It did not take long before even
Marxists became the representatives of a national opposition. And now one could experience the unique
spectacle of Jews and Folkish Germans, Social Democrats and members of the Patriotic Leagues, communists
and national bourgeois, arm in arm, spiritually marching across the Brenner in order to carry out the reconquest
of this territory in mighty battles but, to be sure, without the shedding of blood. A charm of a wholly special
character was further added to this bold national front by the fact that even those out and out Bavarian
particularist representatives of Bavarian sovereign rights, whose spiritual forefathers over a hundred years before
had surrendered the good Andreas Hofer to the French and let him be shot, also vigorously interested themselves
in the freedom struggle for the country of Andreas Hofer.
Since the influence of the Jewish press gang, and the national bourgeois and patriotic dunderheads who run after
them, has really succeeded in blowing up the Southern Tyrol problem to the dimensions of a vital question of the
German Nation, I see myself induced to take a detailed position toward it.
As has already been emphasised, the old Austrian State had over 850000 Italians within its borders. Incidentally,
the data on nationalities as established by the Austrian census was not wholly accurate. Namely, the count was
not made according to the nationality of the individual, but rather according to the language he specified as
spoken. Obviously this could not give a completely clear picture, but it is in the nature of the weakness of the
national bourgeoisie gladly to deceive itself over the real situation. If one does not learn of a matter, or at least if
it is not talked about openly, then it also does not exist. Ascertained on the basis of such a procedure, the
Italians, or better, the people who spoke Italian, in large measure lived in the Tyrol. According to the census
figures of the year 1910 the Tyrol had inhabitants, of whom percent were counted as speaking the
Italian language, while the rest were counted as German or in part also Latin. Consequently around
Italians were in the Arch Duchy of Tyrol. Since this whole number is allotted to the territory occupied today by
Italians, the ratio of Germans to Italians in the whole part of the territory of the Tyrol occupied by Italians
consequently is one of Germans to Italians.
It is necessary to establish this because not a few people in Germany, thanks to the mendacity of our press, have
no idea at all that, in the area understood by the concept Southern Tyrol, actually two thirds of the inhabitants
living there are Italians, and one third German. Thus, whoever seriously advocates the reconquest of the
Southern Tyrol would bring about a change of things only to the extent that instead of having 200000 Germans
under Italian rule, he would bring 400000 Italians under German rule.
To be sure, the German element in the Southern Tyrol is now concentrated primarily in the northern part,
whereas the Italian element inhabits the south. Thus if someone would find a solution that is just in a national
sense, he must first of all completely exclude the concept Southern Tyrol from the general discussion. For one
cannot war on the Italians on moral grounds because they have taken an area in which 200000 Germans live next
to 400000 Italians if we ourselves, conversely, want to win this territory again for Germany as a redress of this
injustice, that is, if we want to commit a still greater injustice than is the case with Italy.
Thus the call for a reconquest of the Southern Tyrol will have the same moral faults in it which we now discover
in the Italian rule in the Southern Tyrol. Hence this call also loses its moral justification. With this still other
viewpoints can be asserted, which then must speak for a regaining of the whole Southern Tyrol. Thus on the
basis of morally justified feelings we can, at most, advocate the regaining of that part which is actually inhabited
by an overwhelming majority of Germans. This is a spatially limited area of square kilometres. Even in
this, however, there are around 190000 Germans, 64000 Italians and Latins, and 24000 other aliens, so that the
completely German territory encompasses hardly 160000 Germans.
At the present time there is hardly a border which does not cut Germans off from the Motherland just as in the
Southern Tyrol. Indeed, in Europe alone, not less than million Germans all told are separated from the
Reich. Of these, million live under out and out alien rule, and only million in German Austria and
Switzerland, though under conditions that at least for the moment pose no threat to the nationality. At the same
time, here are a whole series of cases involving aggregates of a quite different numerical character as compared
to our Folkdom in the Southern Tyrol.
As terrible as this fact is for our Folk, just so guilty of it are those who today raise their hue and cry over the
Southern Tyrol. Just as little, at any rate, can we make the fate of all the rest of the Reich dependent simply on
the interests of these lost territories, let alone on the wishes of one of them, even by taking over a purely
bourgeois border policy.
For one thing must first of all be rejected most sharply: there is no Holy German Folk in the Southern Tyrol, as
the Patriotic Leaguers foolishly prattle. Rather, all who must be reckoned as belonging to German Folkdom must
be equally holy to it. It won't do to appraise a Southern Tyrolean higher than a Silesian, East Prussian or West
Prussian who is enslaved under Polish rule. It also won't do to regard a German in Czechoslovakia as more
worthwhile than a German in the Saar territory or also in Alsace-Lorraine. The right to grade the German
element of the severed territories according to special values could, at best, grow out of an analytical
examination of their specific decisive and dominant fundamental racial values. But this is the very measure
which the protest groups against Italy apply least of all. For the Tyroleans in the territories now separated too, it
could yield no higher credit factor than, let's say, for an East or a West Prussian.
Now the foreign policy task of the German Reich as such cannot be determined by the interests of the parts split
off from the Reich. For in reality these interests will not be served thereby, since practical help indeed
presupposes the regained power of the Motherland. Hence the sole viewpoint that warrants consideration in
regard to the foreign policy position can be only that of the fastest and earliest restoration of the independence
and freedom of the remaining part of the Nation united under a Government.
In other words, this means that even if a German foreign policy were cognisant of no aim other than the
salvation of the Holy Folk In Southern Tyrol, that is, the 190000 Germans who can really come under
consideration, first the prerequisite thereto would be the achievement of Germany's political independence as
well as means of military power. For it should be rather clear, after all, that the Austrian protest State will not
wrest the Southern Tyrol from the Italians. But it must be equally clear that even if German foreign policy knew
no aim other than the actual liberation of the Southern Tyrol, its actions must especially then be determined by
such viewpoints and factors which guarantee the regaining of the means of political and military power. Thus we
should surely not place the Southern Tyrol in the focal point of foreign policy considerations, but, on the
contrary, especially then must we be dominated and guided by those ideas which in fact allow us to smash the
existing world coalition directed against Germany. For ultimately, even through Germany, the Southern Tyrol
will not be restored to the German element by the droning of a Tibetan prayer wheel of protests and indignation,
but by the commitment of the sword.
Thus, if Germany herself were to have this aim, she must nevertheless ever and again look first of all for an ally
who would furnish help for the gaining of German power. Now one can say that France could be considered in
this case. As a National Socialist, I however oppose this most sharply.
It may well be that France would declare herself ready to allow Germany to march with her as an ally against
Italy. Indeed, it can even be that, in gracious recognition of our blood sacrifice, and as meagre bandages for our
wounds, they would award the Southern Tyrol to us. But what would such a victory mean for Germany? Could
our Nation, for instance, live then because it possesses 200000 more Southern Tyroleans? Or does one not
believe that France, once she has defeated her Latin competitor in the Mediterranean with German military help,
would surely turn once more against Germany? Or in any case that she would surely pursue her old political aim
of the liquidation of Germany?
No, if for Germany there remains any choice between France and Italy, then, according to all human reason,
Italy alone warrants consideration for Germany. For a victory with France over Italy will bring us the Southern
Tyrol and a stronger France to boot as a subsequent enemy. A victory over France with Italy's help will bring us
Alsace-Lorraine at the least, and at most, the freedom to carry out a genuine large scale territorial policy. And in
the long run it is through this alone that Germany can live in the future, and not through Southern Tyrol. Nor
will it do to choose one among all the severed territories, and indeed the one most unimportant to us in a vital
sense, and to stake the total interests of a nation of 70000000 people, actually to renounce its future, just so that
wretched fantastic German hurrah! -patriots can obtain a momentary gratification. And all this on account of a
sheer phantom, for in reality the Southern Tyrol would be as little helped thereby as it is now.
The National Socialist Movement as such must educate the German Folk to the effect that it must not shrink
from staking its blood for the sake of shaping its life. But, likewise, our Folk must be educated to the effect that
such a staking of their blood, at least in future history, must never again take place for the sake of phantoms.
Let our protest patriots and Fatherland Leaguers for once please say how they envisage the reconquest of the
Southern Tyrol other than by military violence. Let them, for once, summon up the honesty to avow, if they
seriously believe it, that one day Italy — made mellow simply by their verbiage and heated protests - will hand
over the Southern Tyrol, or whether they are not also convinced that a State with some existing national
consciousness will give up a territory for which it had fought for four long years only under the compulsion of a
military decision. Let them not always prattle that we, or I, had renounced the Southern Tyrol. These infamous
liars know very well that, at least as far as regards my own person, I fought at the Front at the time when the fate
of the Southern Tyrol was being decided, something which not a few of the presentday meeting protesters
neglected to do at that time. And that at the same time, however, the forces with which our Patriotic Leaguers
and National bourgeoisie make a common foreign policy and agitate against Italy, sabotaged the victory with
every means, that international Marxism, democracy and the Centre even in peacetime neglected nothing in
order to weaken and paralyse the military power of our Folk, and that finally they organised a revolution during
the War which necessarily led to the collapse of the German Homeland and with it of the German Army.
The Southern Tyrol was also lost to the German Folk through the activity of these people, and the accursed
weakness and impotence of our presentday bourgeois manic protesters. It is a contemptible falsification on the
part of these so called national patriots if today they talk about a renunciation of the Southern Tyrol. No, dear
gentlemen, don't twist and squirm in such a cowardly way over the right word. Don't be too cowardly to come
right out and say that today it could only be a question of the conquest of the Southern Tyrol. For the
renunciation, gentlemen of the National Leagues, was effected by your worthy presentday allies, the one time
Marxist betrayers of their country, with all legal governmental forms. And the only ones who had the courage to
take an open position against this crime at that time were not you, esteemed National Leaguers and bourgeois
diplomatists, but rather the small National Socialist Movement and primarily myself. Indeed, sirs, when you
were so quiet that nobody in Germany had an idea of your existence, so deeply had you crawled off into your
mouse holes, it was then in the years 1919 and 1920 that I came forth against the shame of signing the peace
treaties — and not secretly, behind four walls, but publicly. At that time, however, you were still so cowardly that
never once did you dare to come to one of our meetings for fear of being cudgelled by your present foreign
policy allies, the Marxist street tramps.
The men who signed the Peace Treaty Of Saint Germain were as little National Socialists as the signers of the
Peace Treaty Of Versailles. They were the members of the parties who, by this signing, merely capped their
decades long betrayal of their country. Whoever today wants to change the fate of the Southern Tyrol in any way
cannot renounce anything that was already renounced in all forms by the presentday protesters. At most he can
only reconquer it.
I am most fanatically opposed to this, to be sure, and I announce the most extreme resistance to this endeavour,
and I shall fight with the utmost fanaticism against the men who are trying to drive our Folk into this adventure,
as bloody as it is insane. I did not learn about the War at a restaurant table reserved for regular customers. Nor
was I, in this War, one of those who had to give orders or to command. I was an ordinary soldier who was given
orders for four and a half years, and who nevertheless honourably and truly fulfilled his duty. But I thereby had
the good fortune to know war as it is, and not as one would like to see it. As a simple soldier, who had known
only its dark sides, I was for this war up to the last hour because I was convinced that the salvation of our Folk
could lie only in victory. Since, however, there is now a peace which others have perpetrated, I fight to the
utmost against a war which would not benefit the German Folk, but instead only those who once before
sacrilegiously traded the blood sacrifice of our Folk for their interests. I am of the conviction that one day I will
not be lacking in the determination, to bear the responsibility even, if necessary, of staking the blood of the
German Folk. But I fight against even a single German being dragged off to a battlefield, for fools or criminals
to nourish their plans on his blood. Whoever reflects on the unprecedented horror and the frightful misery of a
modern war, or considers the boundless demands on the nervous stamina of a Folk, must take fright at the idea
that such a sacrifice could be demanded for a success which in the most favourable case could never be
consonant with this enormous effort. And I also know that if today the people of the Southern Tyrol, so far as it
thinks along exclusively German lines, were gathered in one front and the hundreds and hundreds of thousands
of dead which our Nation would have to lay down in a struggle for their sake were to appear before these
spectators, 300000 hands would rise protectingly toward heaven, and the foreign policy of the National
Socialists would be justified.
What is most terrible about all this is that they play with this dreadful possibility without ever giving a thought
to really wanting to help the Southern Tyroleans.
Since the struggle over the Southern Tyrol is being waged today by those who once surrendered all Germany to
ruin, even the Southern Tyrol is to them only a means to an end which they use with ice cold unscrupulousness
in order to be able to gratify their infamous anti German — in the most extreme sense of the word — instincts. It
is the hate against the presentday nationally conscious Italy, and it is above all a hatred of the new political idea
of this country, and most of all hatred against the towering Italian statesman, which induces them to stir up
German public opinion with the help of the Southern Tyrol. For, in reality, how indifferent after all are these
elements to the German Folk. While they lament the Southern Tyrol's fate with crocodile tears in their eyes, they
are driving all Germany toward a fate which is worse than that of the partitioned territory. While they protest
against Italy in the name of national culture, they pollute the culture of the German nation within, destroy our
whole cultural sensibility, poison the instinct of our Folk, and annihilate even the accomplishments of earlier
times. Does an age which inside the country has depressed our whole theatre, our literature, our plastic arts to the
level of swine, have the right to step forth against presentday Italy, or to protect German culture from her in the
name of culture? The gentlemen of the Bavarian People's Party, the German Nationalists, and even the Marxist
defilers of culture, are concerned about the German culture of the Southern Tyrol, but, undisturbed, they let the
culture of the Homeland be insulted by the most wretched bungling works, and surrender the German stage to
the race shame of a Jonny Spielt Auf [note 11]. And, hypocritically, they lament the oppression of German
cultural life in the Southern Tyrol, while they themselves most cruelly persecute those in the Homeland who
want to protect German culture from a deliberate and intentional destruction. Here the Bavarian People's Party
incites the State power against those who raise a protest against the infamous defilement of our Folk's culture.
What do these solicitous protectors of German culture in the Southern Tyrol do in Germany itself for the defence
of German culture? They have let the theatre sink to the level of a brothel, into sites of demonstrated race
defilement, and destroyed all the foundations of our Folk Life with movies holding honesty and morality up to
ridicule; they connive at the cubistic and dadaistic infatuation of our plastic art, they themselves protect the
fabricators of this base deception or madness, they let German literature sink into mud and filth, and surrender
the whole intellectual life of our Folk to international Jewry. And the same contemptible pack is so brazen faced
as to stand up for German culture in the Southern Tyrol, whereby the only aim they have in mind, naturally, is to
incite two cultured Folks against each other so that in the end they can all the more easily reduce them to the
level of their own cultural wretchedness.
Thus is it in everything, however.
They complain about the persecution of the Germans in the Southern Tyrol, and they are the same people who in
Germany most cruelly wage war on anyone who understands being national as something other than
defencelessly surrendering his Folk to syphilisation by Jews and Negroes. The same people who call for the
freedom of conscience of Germans in the Southern Tyrol oppress it in Germany itself in the meanest way. Never
before has the freedom of expression of one's national outlook in Germany been so muzzled as under the rule of
these mendacious party riffraff who presume to break a lance for the rights of conscience and national freedoms,
of all things, in the Southern Tyrol. They wail over every injustice that is inflicted on a German in the Southern
Tyrol, but they are silent about the murders that these Marxist street tramps commit from month to month in
Germany against national elements. And their silence is shared by the whole fine national bourgeoisie including
the Fatherland protesters. In a single year — that is to say, only five months of this year have gone by — nine men
from the ranks of the National Socialist Movement alone were murdered under circumstances that in part were
bestial, and over six hundred wounded. This entire mendacious brood is silent about this, but how they would
roar if only one such deed were committed by Fascism against the German element in the Southern Tyrol. How
they would summon the whole world to revolt if only one German in the Southern Tyrol were slaughtered by
Fascists under conditions similar to those which the Marxist murder riffraff employs in Germany, without this
calling forth the indignation of this fine phalanx for the salvation of the German Folk. And how indeed these
same people, who solemnly protest against the government persecution of the German element in the Southern
Tyrol, persecute the Germans who inconvenience them in Germany itself. Beginning with the U-boat heroes up
to the saviours of Upper Silesia, the men who first staked their blood for Germany — how they dragged them in
chains before the courts and finally sentenced them to the penitentiary, all because they had sacrificed their lives
hundreds upon hundreds of times out of a fervent love for the Fatherland, whereas this contemptible riffraff of
protesters had crawled off somewhere where they could not be found. Let them total the sentences which have
been imposed in Germany for acts which in a national conscious State would be rewarded with the highest
decorations. If Italy today puts a German in the Southern Tyrol in jail, the whole German national and Marxist
newspaper pack straightaway screams bloody murder. But they completely overlook that in Germany one can go
to jail for months merely on the basis of a denunciation, that house searches, violation of the mails, telephone
tapping — that is, sheer anticonstitutional deprivation of the personal freedoms guaranteed by the civil rights of
this State - are the order of the day. And let not our so called national parties say that this is possible only in
Marxist Prussia. First of all, they fraternise arm in arm with these same Marxists in regard to foreign policy, and,
second, they have taken the same part in the oppression of a real, self conscious nationalism. In national Bavaria
they placed the mortally ill Dietrich Eckart [note 12] in so called protective custody, despite the available
medical testimony, without even the trace of any wrongdoing on his part save, at most, that of his incorruptible
national outlook. And he was kept in such custody for so long that he finally collapsed, and died two days after
his release. Moreover, he was Bavaria's greatest poet. Of course he was a national German and had not
perpetrated any Jonny Spielt Auf, and in consequence he did not exist for these fighters for the national culture.
Just as these national patriots first murdered him, likewise did they kill his work with silence, for after all he was
a German and a good Bavarian in addition, and no international Jew polluter of Germany. In that case he would
have been holy to this league of patriots, but here they acted in accordance with their national bourgeois outlook,
and the open statement in the Miinchen police administration: Croak, national pig! But these are the same
German conscious elements who mobilise the indignation of the world when someone in Italy stupidly does no
more than throw a German in jail.
When a few Germans were expelled from the Southern Tyrol, these people again summoned the German Folk to
blazing indignation. They forgot only to add, however, that the greatest incitement was being directed against
Germans in Germany itself. Under a bourgeois national government, national Bavaria has expelled dozens and
dozens of Germans, and all only because they did not politically suit the corrupt ruling bourgeois stratum in
consequence of their uncompromising nationalism. Suddenly one no longer took cognisance of the clan
brotherhood with German Austria, but only of the foreigner. But it was not at all limited to the expulsion of so
called alien Germans. No, these same bourgeois national hypocrites who hurl flaming protests against Italy
because a German is expelled from the Southern Tyrol and packed off to another province, have expelled from
Bavaria dozens and dozens of Germans with German citizenship who fought for Germany in the German Army
for four and a half years, and who had been severely wounded, and won the highest decorations. Indeed, this is
how these bourgeois national hypocrites look who now bluster indignantly against Italy, whereas they
themselves have burdened themselves with shame upon shame among their own Folk.
They moan over the denationalisation in Italy, and at the same time they denationalise the German Folk in their
own Homeland. They fight against anyone who opposes poisoning of our Folk with regard to blood, indeed they
persecute every German who does battle against the de Germanisation, Negrification, and Judaisation of our
Folk in the big cities, which they themselves instigate and sponsor, and in the most shameless and ruthless way.
And by means of the mendacious allegation of a danger to religious establishments, they try to send them to jail.
When an overexcited Italian in Merano damaged the Empress Elizabeth's Monument there, they raised a wild
clamour, and could not be pacified even though an Italian court punished the culprit with two months in prison.
That the monuments and mementos of the past greatness of our Folk are uninterruptedly defiled in Germany
itself, interests them not at all. That France has almost entirely destroyed all monuments recalling Germany in
Alsace-Lorraine is a matter of indifference to them. It does not excite them that the Poles systematically lay
waste to everything that even reminds one of the name of Germany. Indeed, they do not get excited over the fact
that this very month in Bromberg [note 13] the Bismarck Tower was officially demolished by the Government —
all this leaves these champions of the national honour of our Folk cold, [note 15] Woe, however, if something
like this were the case in the Southern Tyrol. For this has suddenly become a Holy Land for them. But the
Fatherland itself, the Homeland, it can go to hell.
Certainly, on the Italian side, more than one unwise action has taken place in the Southern Tyrol, and the attempt
to denationalise the German element systematically is just as impolitic as its result is questionable. But those
who are in part guilty of all this and who, as a matter of fact, know nothing of a national honour of their Folk,
have no right to protest against this. Instead, this right belongs only to those who up to now really fought for
German interests and German honour. In Germany this was exclusively the National Socialist Movement.
The whole inner mendacity of the agitation against Italy becomes apparent if the actions of the Italians are
compared with the actions that the French, Poles, Belgians, Czechs, Rumanians and Southern Slavs have
perpetrated against the German element. That France has expelled more than a quarter million Germans
altogether from Alsace-Lorraine, that is, more people than the Southern Tyrol numbers as inhabitants, means not
a rap to them. And that the French today are trying to extirpate every trace of German nationality in Alsace-
Lorraine does not prevent them from fraternising with France, even when continuous blows on the jaw are the
answer from Paris. That the Belgians persecute the German element with a matchless fanaticism; that the Poles
have massacred over 17000 Germans, in part under downright bestial attendant circumstances, gives them no
cause for excitement; that they, finally, expelled tens of thousands from house and home, with hardly a shirt on
their backs, and drove them across the border, are things that cannot make our bourgeois and Fatherland protest
swindlers fly into a passion. Indeed, whoever wants to know the real disposition of this pack must only recall the
way and manner in which the refugees were welcomed even then. Their hearts, at that time, bled as little as they
do now when those tens of thousands of unfortunate expellees again found themselves on the soil of their dear
Homeland, in part in veritable concentration camps, and were being shunted from place to place like Gypsies. In
my mind's eye I still see before me the time when the first Ruhr refugees came to Germany, and then were
shunted from police administration to police administration as if they were hardened criminals. No, then the
hearts of these representatives and defenders of the national element in the Southern Tyrol did not bleed. But if a
single German in the Southern Tyrol itself is expelled by the Italians, or some other injustice is inflicted on him,
they tremble with righteous resentment and indignation over this unexampled crime against culture and over this
greatest barbarism that the world has ever seen. How they say then: Never before and nowhere else before has
the German element been so oppressed with such terrible and tyrannical methods as in this country. Indeed, but
only with one exception, that is, namely, Germany itself, through your own tyranny.
The Southern Tyrol, or better, the German element in the Southern Tyrol, must remain preserved for the German
Folk, but in Germany itself, through their insane policy of non national dishonourableness, of general corruption,
and of obsequiousness to the international financial lords, they murder more than double the people that the
Southern Tyrol numbers as German inhabitants. They are silent about the 17000-22000 people driven to suicide
yearly on average in recent years by their catastrophic policies, although this number, with children included,
likewise amounts in ten years alone, to more than the Southern Tyrol numbers in German inhabitants. They
foster emigration, and Herr Stresemann's national bourgeoisie characterises the increase of the emigration quota
as an enormous foreign policy success. And yet this means that every four years Germany loses more people
than the Southern Tyrol numbers as inhabitants of German nationality. But in abortions and birth control, year
for year, they murder almost double the number of people of German nationality in the Southern Tyrol all
together. And this pack arrogates to itself the moral right to speak on behalf of the interests of the German
Or this national official Germany wails over the denationalisation of our language in the Southern Tyrol, but in
Germany itself they de Germanise the German names in Czechoslovakia, in Alsace-Lorraine, and so on, in all
official ways and manners. Indeed, official travel guides are published in which even the German names of cities
in Germany are Czechised for the sake of the Czechs. This is all in order. Only when the Italians changed the
holy name Brenner into Brennero was this an occasion to demand the most fervent resistance. And it is a
spectacle not to be missed when such a bourgeois patriot begins to blaze with indignation, when one knows well
that it is all a comedy. To simulate national passion suits our passionless, putrefied bourgeoisie as exactly as
when an old whore mimics love. It is all only an artificial sham, and at its worst this is proved most correctly if
such an excitement has its homeland in Austria. The black-gold legitimistic element, to whom formerly the
German element in the Tyrol was completely a matter of indifference, now joins in a holy national indignation.
Something of this kind electrifies all petty bourgeois associations, especially if they then hear that the Jews are
also cooperating. This means that they themselves protest because they know that this time, exceptionally for
once, they are permitted to shout their national feelings out loud — without being done in by the press Jews. On
the contrary: it is after all fine for an upright national bourgeois man to appeal for a national struggle, and at the
same time even be praised by Moses Israel Abrahamson. Indeed, even more. The Jewish gazettes scream along
with them, and with this for the first time the real bourgeois national German unity front is established, from
Krotoschin via Vienna up to Innsbruck, and our German Folk, so politically stupid, lets itself be taken in by this
show exactly as once before German diplomacy and our German Folk let themselves be duped and misused by
Germany once before had let her foreign policy be determined exclusively by Austrian interests. The punishment
for this was something terrible. Woe, if the young German nationalism lets its future policy be determined by the
theatrical babblers of the putrid bourgeois elements, or indeed by the Marxist enemies of Germany. And woe if,
at the same time, in complete misunderstanding of the real driving forces of the Austrian State in Vienna, it
again receives its directives from there. It will be the task of the National Socialist Movement to prepare an end
to this theatrical hue and cry, and to choose sober reason as the ruler of future German foreign policy.
To be sure, Italy also bears guilt for this whole development. I would view it as stupid and politically childish to
rebuke the Italian State for the fact that it pushed its borders up to the Brenner on the occasion of the Austrian
collapse. The motives that dominated it at that time were no more base than the motives which once determined
bourgeois annexationist politicians, including Herr Stresemann and Herr Erzberger, to prop the German borders
against the Belgian Meuse fortresses. At all times a responsible, thinking and acting government will make an
effort to find strategically natural and secure frontiers. Surely, Italy did not annex the Southern Tyrol in order
thus to come into possession of a couple of hundred thousand Germans, and surely the Italians would have
preferred it if only Italians lived in this territory in place of these Germans. For, as a matter of fact, it was never
strategic considerations primarily which induced them to place the borders over the Brenner. But no State would
have acted differently in a similar situation. Hence it is aimless to criticise this shaping of the borders as such,
since ultimately every State must determine its natural borders according to its own interests and not others. To
the extent that the possession of the Brenner may serve military interests and strategic purposes, it is irrelevant
whether or not 200000 Germans live within this strategically established and secured border as such, if the
population of the country encompasses 42 million people, and a militarily effective adversary on this very border
does not come in for consideration. It would have been wiser to have spared these 200000 Germans any
compulsion, rather than to have forcibly tried to instil an outlook the result of which, according to experience, is
generally without value. Also a Folkdom cannot be extirpated in twenty or thirty years, regardless of the
methods employed, and whether one wants or does not want this. On the Italian side, one can answer with a
certain appearance of right that this was not intended at first, and that it developed necessarily by itself as a
consequence of the provocative attempts at a continuous interference in domestic Italian affairs on the part of
Austrian and German external forces, and of the repercussions evoked therefrom on the Southern Tyroleans
themselves. This is correct, for, as a matter of fact, the Italians at first welcomed the German element in the
Southern Tyrol very honestly and loyally. But as soon as Fascism arose in Italy, the agitation against Italy in
Germany and Austria began on grounds of principle, and now led to an increasing heightening of mutual
irritability which in the Southern Tyrol finally had to lead to consequences we see today. Most unfortunate in
this was the influence of the Andreas Hofer Association which, instead of strongly recommending sagacity to
the Germans in the Southern Tyrol, and making it clear to them that their mission was to build a bridge between
Germany and Italy, aroused hopes in the Southern Tyroleans beyond any possibility of realisation, but which,
however, were bound to lead to incitements and thereby to rash steps. It is primarily the fault of this Association
if conditions were carried to an extreme. Whoever like myself had many opportunities to know important
members of this Association personally as well must be amazed over the irresponsibility with which an
Association with so little real active strength could do so much damage. For when I see the different leading
figures in my mind's eye, and think of one of them in particular who had his office in the Miinchen police
administration, then I grow angry at the thought that men who would never bring their own blood and skins to
the market occasioned a development which in its ultimate consequence must end with a bloody conflict.
It is also correct that no understanding at all over the Southern Tyrol can exist with the real wire pullers of this
agitation against Italy, since to these elements the Southern Tyrol as such is a matter of indifference as much as
is the German Nation in general. Indeed it is only a question of a suitable means for sowing confusion and
stirring up public opinion, especially in Germany, against Italy. For this is what concerns these gentlemen.
Hence there is a certain ground for justification in the Italian objection that, regardless of what the treatment of
Germans in the Southern Tyrol may be, these people will always find something suitable for their agitation,
because they want precisely this. But for the very reason that in Germany today, exactly as in Italy, certain
elements have an interest in thwarting an understanding between both Nations with all means, it would be the
duty of wisdom to remove these means from them as far as possible, even despite the danger that they will try
further. The opposite would make sense only if there were altogether nobody in Germany who had the courage
to speak for an understanding in opposition to this agitation. This, however, is not the case. On the contrary, the
more presentday Italy by itself seeks to avoid impolitic incidents, the easier will it become for Italy's friends in
Germany to expose the hate inciters, to unmask the sanctimoniousness of their reasons, and to put a stop to their
Folk poisoning activity. But if in Italy they really believe that they cannot compromise in some way, in view of
all the clamour and the demands of foreign organisations, without this looking like a capitulation rather, and
possibly further increasing the arrogance of these elements, then ways could be found. Indeed such an
obligingness could be fundamentally ascribed to those who not only are not involved in this agitation but, on the
contrary, are the friends of an understanding with Italy and Germany, and themselves lead the sharpest struggle
against the poisoners of public opinion in Germany.
The foreign policy aim of the National Socialist Movement has nothing to do either with an economic or
bourgeois border policy. Our Folkish territorial aim, in the future as well, will assign the German Folk a
development which need never bring it into conflict with Italy. We will also never sacrifice the blood of our Folk
in order to bring about small border rectifications, but only for territory in order to win a further expansion and
sustenance for our Folk. This aim drives us eastward. The east coasts of the Baltic Sea are for Germany what the
Mediterranean Sea is to Italy. Germany's mortal enemy for any further development, indeed even for the mere
maintenance of the unity of our Reich, is France, exactly as she is for Italy. The National Socialist Movement
will never fall into a superficial insipid hurrah! cry. It will not rattle the sword. Its leaders, almost without
exception, have learned about war as it is in reality and truth. Therefore, it will never shed blood for any other
aims save those which are serviceable to the whole future development of our Folk. Hence it also refuses to
provoke a war with Italy for the sake of a border rectification, which is laughable in view of the German
fragmentation in Europe. On the contrary, it wants to put an end for all the future to these unfortunate Teutonic
marches to the south, and wants the advocacy of our interests to take place in a direction which makes the
elimination of its need for territory appear possible to our Folk. By thus delivering Germany from the period of
her present enslavement and servitude, we also fight above all for her restoration and thus in the interest of
If presentday Italy believes that a change in various measures in the Southern Tyrol would be viewed as a
capitulation before foreign interference, without in the end leading to the desired understanding, then let her
undertake this shift exclusively for the sake of those in Germany who themselves are for an understanding with
Italians — thereby openly justifying them — and who not only reject being identified with the agitators against it,
but who, indeed, have fought the sharpest struggle against these elements for years and who recognise the
sovereign rights of the Italian State as existing, as a matter of course.
It is just as little a matter of indifference to Germany whether she keeps Italy as a friend, as it also is to Italy. Just
as Fascism has given the Italian Folk a new value, likewise the value of the German Folk must not be estimated
for the future on the basis of its momentary life expression, but according to the forces which it has so often
shown in its former history and which, perhaps, it can again show tomorrow.
Thus, just as Italy's friendship is worth a sacrifice on Germany's part, German friendship is worth just as much to
Italy. It would be a good fortune for both Folks if those forces in both countries who are the bearers of this
knowledge could come to an understanding.
Thus, as much as the agitation against Italy in Germany is responsible for the unfortunate enmity, just as much
guilt lies on Italy's side if, in view of the fact that there is a struggle in Germany itself against this agitation, she
herself as far as possible does not wrest the means from their hands.
If the sagacity of the Fascist regime one day succeeds in making 65 million Germans into friends of Italy, this
will be worth more than if it educates 200000 into becoming bad Italians.
Likewise unsound was the Italian stand prohibiting the union of Austria with Germany. The very fact that France
primarily espoused this prohibition perforce should have led Rome to take an opposite position. For France itself
did not take this step in order to benefit Italy, but much more rather in the hope of being able to inflict harm on
her thereby. There are primarily two reasons which induced France to push through the prohibition of the union:
first, because thereby she wanted to prevent a strengthening of Germany, and second, because she is convinced
that some day she can, in the Austrian State, acquire a member for the French European alliance. So Rome
should not deceive itself that French influence in Vienna is considerably more decisive even than the German,
not to speak of the Italian. The French attempt to transfer the League Of Nations to Vienna, if possible, stems
only from the intention to strengthen the cosmopolitan character of this city as such, and to bring it into contact
with a country whose character and culture finds a stronger response in the presentday Viennese atmosphere
than does that of the German Reich.
As seriously intended as are the tendencies toward a union in the Austrian provinces as such, just as little are
they taken seriously in Vienna. On the contrary, if in Vienna they really operate with the idea of a union, it is
always only in order to extricate themselves from some financial difficulty, since France then is always sooner
ready to lend a hand to the creditor State. Gradually, however, this very idea of a union will dry up in proportion
as an inner consolidation of the Austrian federation occurs and Vienna regains its full dominating position. On
top of this, the political development in Vienna assumes an increasingly anti Italian and especially anti Fascist
character, whereas Austrian Marxism has at all times made no bones about its strong sympathy for France.
Thus the fact that at that time the union fortunately was prevented, and in part with Italian help, will some day
lead to the insertion of the missing link between Prague and Yugoslavia into the French alliance system.
For Italy, however, the prevention of the Austrian union with Germany had been wrong even on psychological
grounds. The smaller the fragmented Austrian State remained, the more limited naturally also were its foreign
policy aims. A foreign policy goal, conceived on a grand scale, could not be expected from a State structure
which has scarcely square kilometres of territory, and hardly million inhabitants. If German
Austria had been annexed to Germany in the year 1919-1920, the tendency of her political thought would
gradually have been determined by the great political aims of Germany, which were at least possible, that is, for
a nation of almost 70000000. Preventing this at that time removed foreign policy thinking from greater aims, and
limited it to small old Austrian reconstruction ideas. Only thus was it possible that the Southern Tyrol question
could have at all grown to such an importance. For as small as the Austrian State was as such, it was at least
large enough to be the bearer of a foreign policy idea which was in keeping with its smallness, just as,
conversely, it could slowly poison the political thinking of all Germany. The more limited the political ideas of
the Austrian State become in consequence of its territorial limitation, the more will they sprout into problems
which can certainly have an importance for this State, but which cannot be viewed as decisive for the shaping of
a German foreign policy for the German Nation.
Italy should espouse a union of Austria with Germany if for no other reason than to cut across the French
alliance system in Europe. She should further also do this, however, in order to present other tasks to the German
border policy germinated in consequence of her incorporation in a great Reich.
Moreover, the reasons which once induced Italy to take a stand against the union are not quite clear. Neither
presentday Austria nor presentday Germany can be considered a military adversary of Italy for the time being.
But if France succeeds in bringing a general alliance in Europe into being against Italy, in which Austria and
Germany take part, the military situation as such will not at all change whether Austria is independent or
whether she is with Germany. Moreover one cannot actually speak of a real independence with so small a
structure anyhow. Austria will always [They will always] hang on to the strings of a large power of some kind.
Switzerland cannot in the least prove the opposite, since as a State she possesses her own possibilities of
existence, even if on the basis of tourist traffic. For Austria this is already impossible in consequence of the
disproportion of the capital of this country to the size of the whole population. Regardless, however, what
attitude Austria itself assumes toward Italy, in the very fact of her existence there already lies an easing of the
military strategic position of Czechoslovakia which one day, one way or another, can make itself noticeable vis-
a-vis Italy's natural ally as such, Hungary.
For the Italians, military and political reasons would speak in favour of regarding prohibition of the union as at
least without importance, if not as something which answers the purpose.
I cannot conclude this chapter without establishing in detail who in fact bears the guilt that a Southern Tyrol
question exists altogether.
For us National Socialists, politically, the decision has been reached. And at least I — who am most violently
opposed to millions of Germans being dragged to a battlefield on which to bleed to death for the interests of
France without a gain thereby accruing to Germany which would in some way be consonant with the blood
sacrifice — I also refuse to recognise the standpoint of national honour as being decisive here. For on the basis of
this viewpoint I would sooner have to march against France, which by her whole conduct has offended German
honour in quite a different way, than Italy. I have already enlarged in the introduction to this book on the
possibility of formulating a foreign policy on the basis of national honour, so there is no further need to take a
position toward it. If now the attempt is made in our protest groups to present this attitude of ours as a betrayal
or a renunciation of the Southern Tyrol, this can only be correct if, without our attitude, Southern Tyrol would
either have not been lost altogether, or were about to return to the other Tyrol in the predictable future.
Therefore I see myself forced once more to establish in this exposition precisely who it was that betrayed the
Southern Tyrol, and through whose measures it was lost to Germany.
The Southern Tyrol was betrayed and lost by the activity of those parties who, in long work for peace,
weakened, or completely refused, the armament to the German Folk which it needed to assert itself in Europe,
and by so doing robbed the German Folk of the necessary power for victory and thereby of the preservation of
the Southern Tyrol at the critical hour.
Those parties who, in long work for peace, undermined the moral and ethical foundation of our Folk and, above
all, destroyed faith in the right to self defence.
Thus the Southern Tyrol was also betrayed by those parties, which as so called Statepreserving and national
parties, looked on this activity with indifference or, at least, without opposing a serious resistance. Albeit
indirectly, they too are accessories to the weakening of our Folk's armament.
The Southern Tyrol was betrayed and lost by the activity of those political parties who reduced the German Folk
to being the stooge of the Habsburg big power idea. And who, instead of setting before German foreign policy
the aim of the national unification of our Folk, viewed the preservation of the Austrian State as the mission of
the German nation. Who, therefore, also in peacetime, for decades merely looked on as the Habsburgs
systematically carried out their work of de Germanisation, indeed furnishing them assistance. Thereby they are
coresponsible for neglecting the solution of the Austrian question by Germany itself, or at least by the decisive
cooperation of Germany. In such a case the Southern Tyrol could have certainly been preserved for the German
The Southern Tyrol was lost in consequence of the general aimlessness and planlessness of German foreign
policy which in the year 1914 extended also to the establishment of reasonable war aims, or prevented this.
The Southern Tyrol was betrayed by all those who, during the course of the War, did not cooperate to the utmost
in strengthening German resistance and aggressive power. As well as by the parties which deliberately paralysed
the German power of resistance, as well as those who tolerated this paralysis.
The Southern Tyrol was lost in consequence of the inability, even during the War, to undertake a new orientation
of German foreign policy and to save the German element of the Austrian State by renouncing the maintenance
of the Habsburg great power State.
The Southern Tyrol was lost and betrayed by the activity of those who, during the War, by raising the sham hope
of a peace without victory, broke the German Folk's moral power of resistance, and who instead of a
manifestation of the will to wage the War, brought about a peace resolution that was catastrophic for Germany.
The Southern Tyrol was lost by the betrayal of those parties and men who even during the War lied to the
German Folk about the non existence of Entente imperialistic aims, and thereby duped our Folk, estranged it
from the unconditional necessity of resistance, and ultimately induced it to believe the Entente more than those
who raised their voices in warning at home.
The Southern Tyrol was further lost by the grinding down of the Front, attended to by the Homeland, and by the
infection of German thinking by the fraudulent declarations of Woodrow Wilson.
The Southern Tyrol was betrayed and was lost by the activity of parties and men who, beginning with
conscientious objection to military service up to the organisation of munitions strikes, robbed the Army of the
feeling of the incontestable necessity of its struggle and victory.
The Southern Tyrol was betrayed and lost by the organisation and the execution of the November crime, as well
as by the contemptible and cowardly tolerance of this ignominy by the so called Statepreserving national forces.
The Southern Tyrol was lost and betrayed by the shameless acts of the men and parties who, after the collapse,
defiled Germany's honour, destroyed the esteem of our Folk before the world, and only thereby encouraged our
adversaries to the enormity of their demands. It was further lost by the contemptible cowardice of the national
bourgeois parties and patriotic leagues who dishonourably capitulated everywhere before the terror of baseness
The Southern Tyrol was finally lost and betrayed by the signing of the peace treaties, and with this by the legal
recognition of the loss also of this area.
All the German parties together are guilty of all this. Some have knowingly and intentionally destroyed
Germany, and others in their proverbial incapacity and in their cowardice, which cries out to heaven, not only
did nothing to stop the destroyers of Germany's future, but, on the contrary, they actually played into the hands
of these enemies of our Folk by the incapacity of their direction of domestic and foreign policy. Never before
has a Folk been driven, like the German Folk, to ruin by such a marriage of baseness, villainy, cowardice and
In these days we have been afforded a glimpse into the activities and effectiveness of this old Germany in the
field of foreign policy by the publication of the War Memoirs of the head of the American intelligence service,
Mister Fly nn [note 14].
I let a bourgeois democratic organ speak on this matter only for the purpose of a broader understanding.
(26th Of June, 1928)
How America Entered The War
Flynn Writes About The Diplomatic Secret Service — By F. W. Elven, Correspondent Of The Miinchen Latest
News — Cincinnati, Mid June
William J. Flynn has published a part of his War Memoirs in the weekly Liberty, which is much read here.
During the war, Flynn was the Head Of The United States Secret Service. The Service encompasses the whole
country, and is brilliantly organised. In peacetime it primarily provides for the personal security of the President.
Its attention is enjoyed by whatever else in the national capital is in need of protection, or thinks it needs so. It
keeps under surveillance all doubtful elements somehow suspected of connections with political tendencies
hostile to the government and its spokesmen. During the war its principal task was to keep an eye on those who
more or less loudly had made themselves noticeable in opposition to the war, or who merely were suspected of
not being in agreement with the Wilsonian war policy. Germans also enjoyed its special care, and at that time
many fell into the traps which had been laid everywhere by the Federal Secret Service.
From Flynn's memoirs, however, we learn that the Secret Service had been assigned an important mission even
before our entry into the war. In the year 1915, a full two years before the declaration of war, the most efficient
telephone expert was summoned to Washington and assigned the task of arranging the leading telephone wires
to the German and Austrian embassies in such a way that Secret Service officials could tap every conversation
from any source that was held between the ambassadors and their personnel, as well as every conversation
emanating from the embassy offices. A room was set up with which all the wires were linked in such an
ingenious way that not even a single conversation could be missed. Service men sat in this room day and night,
dictating the overheard conversations to the stenographers seated beside them. Every night the head of the Secret
Service Bureau, that is, the author of the article in Liberty, received a stenographic report of all the conversations
held in the preceding twenty four hours, so that on the very same evening he was able to communicate
everything important to the State Department and to President Wilson.
Let us bear in mind the time this installation was created, at the beginning of the year 1915, that is, at the time
when the United States still lived in peace with Germany and Austria-Hungary, and Wilson never tired of giving
assurances that he harboured no hostile intentions against Germany. It was also the time when the German
Ambassador in Washington, Count Bernstorff, neglected no opportunity to show due appreciation of Wilson's
friendly disposition and feelings for Germany and the German Folk. It was also the time when Wilson gave his
confidant Baruch instructions to begin the gradual mobilisation of industry for war; also the time in which it
became increasingly obvious, as the American historian Harry Elmer Barnes also sets forth in his book On The
Origins Of The Great War, that Wilson was firmly decided to enter the war, and postponed the execution of his
bellicose plans only because public opinion first had to be won over for these plans.
Flynn's memoirs must finally remove the ground from the foolish chatter that Wilson was pushed into the war
against his will by German submarine warfare. The tapping of the telephone wires leading to the German
embassy took place with his knowledge. We also learn this from Flynn's memoirs. The author adds that the
material thus gathered against Germany contributed considerably to the eventual break. This can prove only that
this put means in Wilson's hands to win public opinion for the war long planned by him. And in fact this
material was wholly and ideally suited for it. The Memoirs confirm to the fullest extent what unfortunately must
still be said, that Germany at that time was represented in Washington in a downright incredibly incompetent
and incredibly unworthy way. If we hear that in one passage Flynn writes that the stenographic reports prepared
for him daily contained enough material to keep a divorce lawyer busy for months on end, then we get a general
idea of what went on.
The Secret Service maintained women agents in Washington and New York whose job it was to sound out the
members of the German Embassy, Bernstorff included, whenever anything important happened. One of these
woman agents kept a better class apartment in Washington in which the gentlemen met their ladies, and where
occasionally even Secretary Of State Lansing dropped in to hear what was new. On New Year's Day, 1916,
when the news of the sinking of the liner Persia became known in the national capital, Bernstorff telephoned five
women one after the other in order to make sweet compliments to them and to receive similar compliments in
return, although in view of the mood which news of the sinking of the Persia had left behind in the State
Department and the White House, he really could not have been lacking in more serious pursuits.
One of the ladies complimented Bernstorff on the fact that he was a great lover, and always would be, even were
he a hundred years old. The rest of the gentlemen of the embassy were not differently built. One, whom Flynn
designates as the best diplomatic aide in the embassy, had a lady friend in New York, a married woman, with
whom he had a daily telephone conversation which each time cost the German Reich twenty dollars, and whom
he visited frequently. He told her about everything that happened, and she then took care to bring this
information to the right places. Even quite vulgar remarks about Wilson and his consort were made during the
telephone conversations, and thus we can without difficulty imagine that thereby the mood of the White House
vis-a-vis Germany did not get any friendlier.
From the conversation held at the beginning of March, 1916, we learn how little the embassy knew about the
country and the Folk, and with what childish plans it concerned itself. At that time a bill introduced by Senator
Gore lay before Congress to the effect that a proclamation be issued warning the American Folk not to use
armed commercial vessels. President Wilson most bitterly fought against the proposal. He needed the loss of
American lives in order to incite feelings against Germany. People in the German embassy knew that the
prospects of the bill were not favourable, so they earnestly concerned themselves with plans to buy Congress.
Only at first they did not know where to get the money. On March 3rd, the Senate decided to postpone the Gore
Bill provisionally. The vote in the House was supposed to follow a few days later. So the plan first to buy the
House was further eagerly pursued, but in this case at least Bernstorff was reasonable enough to advise against
the plan decisively.
The reading of the Flynn article must leave a feeling of deep indignation in the veins of every man of healthy
German blood, not only over Wilson's treacherous policy, but rather, and especially, over the incredible stupidity
with which the German Embassy played into the hands of this policy. Wilson duped Bernstorff more and more
from day to day. When Colonel House, his adviser, returned from his European journey in May, 1916,
Bernstorff travelled to New York to meet him there. Wilson, however, who vis-a-vis Bernstorff had acted as
though he had no objections to this meeting, secretly instructed House not to have anything to do with the Count,
and to avoid him at all events. Thus it happened. Bernstorff waited in New York in vain. Then he went to a
nearby beach and let himself be photographed in a bathing suit with two lady friends in a very intimate position.
The photo accompanies Flynn's article. At that time it fell into the hands of the Russian Ambassador
Bakhmateff, who had it enlarged and sent it to London, where it was published in the newspapers under the
caption, The Dignified Ambassador, and it rendered a capital service to Allied propaganda.
This is what the Miinchen Latest News writes now. The man thus characterised, however, was a typical
representative of German foreign policy before the War, just as he is also the typical representative of the
German foreign policy of the Republic. This fellow, who would have been sentenced to hanging by a political
tribunal in any other State, is the German representative at the League Of Nations in Geneva.
These men bear the guilt and the responsibility for Germany's collapse, and, therefore, also for the loss of the
Southern Tyrol. And with them the guilt falls on all parties and men who either caused such conditions, or
covered them up, or also tacitly countenanced them or did not fight against them in the sharpest manner.
The men, however, who today brazenly try to deceive public opinion anew, and would like to aver that others
are guilty of the loss of the Southern Tyrol, must first give a detailed accounting of what they have done for its
As for my person, at any rate, I can proudly declare that, since the time that I became a man, I have always been
for the strengthening of my Folk. And when the War came, I fought on the German Western Front for four and a
half years, and since its end I have been fighting against the corrupt creatures whom Germany can thank for this
disaster. Since that time I have entered into no compromise with the betrayers of the German Fatherland, either
in domestic or foreign policy matters, but immovably proclaim their destruction one day as the aim of my life's
work, and the mission of the National Socialist Movement.
I can all the more calmly endure the yelping of the cowardly bourgeois curs as well as that of the Patriotic
Leaguers, as I know the average poltroon of these creatures, for me unspeakably contemptible, all too well. That
they also know me is the reason for their hue and cry.
As a National Socialist, I see in Italy to begin with the first possible ally of Germany who can step out of the
camp of the old coalition of enemies, without this alliance signifying an immediate war for Germany for which
we are not equipped militarily.
According to my conviction, this alliance will be of great benefit to Germany and Italy alike. Even if its direct
benefit should ultimately no longer exist, it will never become detrimental, as long as both nations represent
their interests in the highest sense of the word. As long as Germany views the maintenance of the freedom and
independence of our Folk as the supreme aim of her foreign policy and wants to secure this Folk the
prerequisite for its daily life, for so long will its foreign policy thinking be determined by our Folk's territorial
need. And for so long will we not be able to have any internal or external inducement to fall into enmity with a
State which does not in the least stand obstructively in our way.
And as long as Italy wants to serve her real vital needs as a truly national State, for just so long will she,
likewise attending to her territorial needs, have to base her political thought and action on the enlargement of
Italian soil. The more proud and independent, the more national the Italian Folk becomes, the less will it in its
development ever come into conflict with Germany.
The areas of interest of these two countries, in a most fortunate way, lie so widely apart from each other that
there are no natural areas of irritation.
A national conscious Germany and an equally proud Italy will also ultimately be able to close the wounds left
behind by the World War in the understanding of their friendship based on their frank and mutual community of
Southern Tyrol will thus some day have to fulfil a lofty mission in the service of both peoples. If the Italians and
the Germans of this territory, once filled with a responsibility for their own Folkdom, perceive and understand
the great tasks that Italy and Germany have to solve, the petty disputes of the day will recede vis-a-vis the
higher mission of building a bridge of frank, reciprocal understanding on the former borders of Germany and
I know that, under the current regimes in Germany, this is as exactly as impossible as it would be under a non
Fascist regime in Italy. For the forces which determine German policy today do not desire any German
resurgence, but our destruction. They likewise want the destruction of the presentday Italian Fascist State, and
therefore will leave nothing untried in order to sink both nations into hate and hostility. France will seize upon
any such manifestation, be it only an act of thoughtlessness, and use it to her own advantage with a thousand
Only a National Socialist Germany will find the way to a final understanding with a Fascist Italy, and finally
eliminate the danger of war between the two Folks. For this old Europe was always a territory that was
dominated by political systems, and this will not be otherwise at least for the humanly predictable future.
General European democracy will either be replaced by a system of Jewish Marxist Bolshevism, to which all
States will succumb one after the other, or by a system of free and unlinked national States, who, in the free
play of forces, will set their stamp on Europe in accordance with the number and importance of their specific
It is also not good for Fascism to exist isolated in Europe as an idea. Either the world of ideas from which it
stems is generalised, or Italy will one day again succumb to the general ideas of another Europe.
Thus, if we submit Germany's foreign policy possibilities to a closer examination, only two States remain in
Europe as possible valuable allies for the future: Italy and England. Italy's relation to England itself is already a
good one today, and, for reasons which I have discussed in another passage, will hardly be clouded in the
immediate future. This, too, has nothing to do with mutual sympathies, but rests, on the Italian side above all,
on a rational appraisal of the actual power relations. Thus an aversion to a boundless and unlimited French
hegemony in Europe is common to both States. For Italy: because her most vital European interests are
threatened; for England: because an overpowerful France in Europe can inflict a new threat on England's
presentday naval and world supremacy which in itself is no longer completely unquestionable.
That already today probably Spain and Hungary are also to be reckoned as belonging to this community of
interests, even if only tacitly, lies grounded in Spain's aversion to French colonial activity in North Africa, as
well as in Hungary's hostility to Yugoslavia, which is at the same time supported by France.
If Germany would succeed in taking part in a new State coalition in Europe, which either must lead to a shift of
emphasis in the League Of Nations itself, or allow decisive power factors altogether outside the League Of
Nations to develop, then the first domestic political prerequisite for a later active foreign policy would be
realisable. The weaponlessness imposed on us by the Versailles treaty and thus our practical defencelessness
could come to an end, albeit slowly. This is possible only if the coalition of victors itself quarrels over this
question, but never, however, in an alliance with Russia, let alone in a union with other so called oppressed
nations, against the front of the coalition of the former victor States that encircle us.
Then in the far future it may be possible to think of a new association of nations, consisting of individual States
with a high national value, which could then stand up to the threatening overwhelming of the world by the
American Union. For it seems to me that the existence of English world rule inflicts less hardships on
presentday nations than the emergence of an American world rule.
Pan Europe cannot be summoned to the solution of this problem, but only a Europe with free and independent
national States whose areas of interest are divergent and precisely delimited.
Only then can the time ripen for Germany, secured by a France pushed back within her own boundaries, and
supported by her Army born anew, to lead the way toward the elimination of her territorial need. Once our Folk,
however, will have grasped this great geopolitical aim in the east, the consequence will not only be clarity
regarding German foreign policy, but also stability, at least for a humanly predictable time, will make it possible
to avoid political insanities like those which ultimately entangled our Folk in the World War. And then we will
also have ultimately overcome the period of this petty daily clamour and of the completely sterile economic and
Germany then, also domestically, will have to take steps toward the strongest concentration of her means of
power. She will have to realise that armies and navies are set up and organised, not along romantic lines, but
according to practical requirements. Then she will automatically select as our greatest task the formation of a
superior strong Land Army, since our future as a matter of fact does not lie on the water, but in Europe rather.
Only if we will have completely perceived the meaning of this proposition and put an end to our Folk's
territorial need, in the east and on the largest scale, along the lines of this perception will German economy also
cease to be a factor of world unrest which brings a thousand dangers down upon us. It will then at least serve
the satisfaction of our domestic needs in their major aspects. A Folk which no longer needs to shunt off its
rising rural generations into the big cities as factory workers, but which instead can settle them as free peasants
on their own soil, will open up a domestic sales market to German industry which can gradually remove and
exempt it from the frenzied struggle and scramble for the so called place in the sun in the rest of the world.
It is the foreign policy task of the National Socialist Movement to prepare and ultimately to carry out this
development. It must also place foreign policy in the service of the reorganisation of our Folkdom on the basis
of its world view range of ideas. Even here it must anchor the principle that we do not fight for systems but for a
living Folk, that is, for flesh and blood, which must be preserved, and whose daily bread must not be lacking so
that in consequence of its physical health it can also be healthy spiritually.
Just as it must step over a thousand obstacles, misunderstandings and malignities in its struggle for reform in its
domestic policy, likewise in foreign policy must it also clear away not only the conscious betrayal of the
country by Marxism, but also the rubbish heap of worthless, indeed harmful phrases and ideas of our national,
bourgeois world. Thus the less understanding there will be for the significance of our struggle at the moment, all
the more powerful will be its success some day.
Why Italy today can primarily be considered as an ally for Germany is connected with the fact that this country
is the only one whose domestic and foreign policy is determined by purely Italian national interests. These
Italian national interests are the only ones which do not contradict German interests, and, conversely, German
interests do not run counter to them. And this is important not only for factual reasons, but also on the basis of
The war against Germany was fought by an overpowering world coalition in which only a part of the States
could have a direct interest in Germany's destruction. In not a few countries, the shift to war was brought by
influences which in no way sprang from the real domestic interests of these nations, or even which could also be
to their benefit. A monstrous war propaganda began to befog public opinion of these Folks, and to stir them into
enthusiasm for a war which for these very Folks in part could not bring any gain at all, and indeed sometimes
ran downright counter to their real interests.
International world Jewry was the power which instigated this enormous war propaganda. For as senseless as
the participation in the War by many of these nations may have been, seen from the viewpoint of their own
interests, it was just as meaningful and logically correct seen from the viewpoint of the interests of world Jewry.
It is not my task here to enter into a discussion of the Jewish question as such. This cannot take place in the
framework of a necessarily brief and compressed presentation. The following is said here only [so much] in the
interests of a better understanding:
Jewry is a Folk with a racial core that is not wholly unitary. Nevertheless, as a Folk, it has special intrinsic
characteristics which separate it from all other Folks living on the globe. Jewry is not a religious community,
but the religious bond between Jews; rather is in reality the momentary governmental system of the Jewish
Folk. The Jew has never had a territorially bounded State of his own in the manner of Aryan States.
Nevertheless, his religious community is a real State, since it guarantees the preservation, the increase and the
future of the Jewish Folk. But this is solely the task of the State. That the Jewish State is subject to no territorial
limitation, as is the case with Aryan States, is connected with the character of the Jewish Folk, which is lacking
in the productive forces for the construction and preservation of its own territorial State.
Just as every Folk as a basic tendency of all its Earthly actions possesses a mania for self preservation as its
driving force, likewise is it exactly so with Jewry, too. Only here, in accord with their basically different
dispositions, the struggle for existence of Aryan Folks and Jewry is also different in its forms. The foundation of
the Aryan struggle for life is the soil, which he cultivates, and which provides the general basis for an economy
satisfying primarily its own needs within its own orbit through the productive forces of its own Folk.
Because of the lack of productive capacities of its own, the Jewish Folk cannot carry out the construction of a
State, viewed in a territorial sense, but as a support of its own existence it needs the work and creative activities
of other nations. Thus the existence of the Jew himself becomes a parasitical one within the lives of other Folks.
Hence the ultimate goal of the Jewish struggle for existence is the enslavement of productively active Folks. In
order to achieve this goal, which in reality has represented Jewry's struggle for existence at all times, the Jew
makes use of all weapons that are in keeping with the whole complex of his character.
Therefore in domestic politics within the individual nations he fights first for equal rights and later for superior
rights. The characteristics of cunning, intelligence, astuteness, knavery, dissimulation, and so on, rooted in the
character of his Folkdom, serve him as weapons thereto. They are as much stratagems in his war of survival as
those of other Folks in combat.
In foreign policy, he tries to bring nations into a state of unrest, to divert them from their true interests, and to
plunge them into reciprocal wars, and in this way gradually rise to mastery over them with the help of the power
of money and propaganda.
His ultimate goal is the denationalisation, the promiscuous bastardisation of other Folks, the lowering of the
racial levy of the highest Folks, as well as the domination of this racial mishmash through the extirpation of the
Folkish intelligentsia and its replacement by the members of his own Folk.
The end of the Jewish world struggle therefore will always be a bloody Bolshevisation. In truth, this means the
destruction of all the intellectual upper classes linked to their Folks so that he can rise to become the master of a
mankind become leaderless.
Stupidity, cowardice and baseness, therefore, play into his hands. In bastards he secures for himself the first
openings for the penetration of an alien nation.
Hence the result of Jewish domination is always the ruin of all culture, and finally the madness of the Jew
himself. For he is a parasite of nations, and his victory signifies his own end as much as the death of his victim.
With the collapse of the ancient world, the Jews encountered young, in part still completely unspoiled, Folks,
sure in racial instinct, who protected themselves against being infiltrated by them. He was a foreigner, and all
his lies and dissimulation helped him little for nearly one and a half thousand years.
It was the feudal domination and the government of the princes which first created a general situation which
allowed him to attach himself to the struggle of an oppressed social class, indeed to make this struggle his own
in a short time. He received civil equality with the French Revolution. With that the bridge was constructed over
which he could stride to the conquest of political power within nations.
The nineteenth century gave him a dominating position within the economy of nations through the building up
of loan capital, based on ideas regarding interest. Finally, through the subterfuge of stock holdings, he placed
himself in possession of a great part of the production sites, and with the help of the stock exchange he
gradually became not only the ruler of public economic life, but ultimately also of political life. He supported
this rule by means of the intellectual contamination of nations with the help of Freemasonry as well as by the
work of the press become dependent upon him. He found the potential strength for the destruction of the
bourgeois intellectual regime in the newly rising fourth estate of the handicraftsmen, just as once before the
bourgeoisie had been the means for the demolition of feudal domination. At the same time, bourgeois stupidity
and dishonest lack of principle, avarice and cowardice worked into his hands. He formed the vocational estate
of the handicraftsmen into a special class, which he now allowed to take up the struggle against the national
intelligentsia. Marxism became the spiritual father of the Bolshevik revolution. It is the weapon of terror which
the Jew now applies ruthlessly and brutally.
The economic conquest of Europe by the Jews was pretty much completed around the turn of the century, and
now he began to safeguard it politically. That means, the first attempts to extirpate the national intelligentsia
were undertaken in the form of revolutions.
He utilised the tensions between European nations, which are in great part to be ascribed to their general need
for territory with the consequences which arise therefrom, for his own advantage by systematically inciting
them to the World War.
The aim is the destruction of inherently anti Semitic Russia as well as the destruction of the German Reich
which, in the administration and the Army, still offers resistance to the Jew. The further aim is the overthrow of
those dynasties which had not yet been made subject to a democracy dependent upon and led by Jews.
This Jewish war aim has at least in part been completely achieved. Czarism and Kaiserism in Germany were
eliminated. With the help of the Bolshevik Revolution, the Russian upper classes and also the Russian national
intelligentsia were murdered and completely extirpated amid inhuman agonies and atrocities. For the Russian
Folk, the total number of victims of this Jewish struggle for hegemony in Russia amounted to 28-30 million
people in number of dead. This is fifteen times more than the World War cost Germany. After the successful
Revolution, he completely tore down [further] the bonds of order, of morality, of custom, and so on, abolished
marriage as a lofty institution, and instead proclaimed a general copulation with the aim of breeding a general
inferior human mishmash, by way of a chaotic bastardisation, which by itself would be incapable of leadership
and which ultimately would no longer be able to do without the Jews as its only intellectual element.
The future will show to what extent this has succeeded, and to what extent now forces of a natural reaction can
still bring about a change of this most terrible crime of all times against mankind.
At the moment, he exerts himself to lead the remaining States toward the same condition. Thereby he is
supported and covered in his strivings and his actions by the bourgeois national parties of the so called National
Fatherland Leagues, whereas Marxism, democracy, and the so called Christian Centre, emerge as aggressive
The bitterest struggle for the victory of Jewry at the present time is being waged in Germany. Here it is the
National Socialist Movement which alone has taken upon itself the struggle against this execrable crime against
In all European States at the moment, a struggle, in part quiet and violent, albeit often under wraps, is being
waged for political power.
Outside Russia, this struggle has first been decided in France. There the Jew, favoured by a number of
circumstances, has entered into a community of interests with French national chauvinism. Since then Jewish
stock exchanges and French bayonets have been allies.
This struggle is undecided in England. There the Jewish invasion still meets with an old British tradition. The
instincts of Anglosaxondom are still so sharp and alive that one cannot speak of a complete victory of Jewry,
but rather, in part, the latter is still forced to adjust its interests to those of the English.
If the Jew were to triumph in England, English interests would recede into the background, just as in Germany
today German interests no longer are decisive, but rather Jewish interests. On the other hand, if the Briton
triumphs, then a shift of England's attitude vis-a-vis Germany can still take place.
The struggle of Jewry for its hegemony is also decided in Italy. With the victory of Fascism in Italy, the Italian
Folk has triumphed. Even if the Jew is compelled to try to adjust himself to Fascism in Italy today, his attitude
toward Fascism outside Italy nevertheless reveals his inner view of it. Only her own national interest is decisive
and determining for Italy's fate, since the memorable day when the Fascist legions marched on Rome. The
struggle of Jewry for its hegemony is also decided in Italy. With the victory of Fascism in Italy, the Italian Folk
has triumphed. Even if the Jew is compelled to try to adjust himself to Fascism in Italy today, his attitude
toward Fascism outside Italy nevertheless reveals his inner view of it. Only her own national interest is decisive
and determining for Italy's fate, since the memorable day when the Fascist legions marched on Rome.
For this reason also no State is better suited than Italy as an ally for Germany. It is consonant only with the
bottomless stupidity and dissembling baseness of our so called Folkish representatives that they reject the only
State that today is ruled along national lines, and as authentic German Folkish elements they prefer to enter a
world coalition with Jews. It is fortunate that the time of these fools is played out in Germany. Thus the German
Folkish concept is released from the embrace of these creatures, as petty as they are pitiful. It will infinitely gain
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